Accumulating evidence also suggests that overfishing of top predators (large predatory fish) could indirectly increase algal growth by reducing grazing control performed by mesograzers, such as crustaceans and gastropods, through a trophic cascade. [48] Seagrasses also enhance water quality by stabilizing heavy metals, pollutants, and excess nutrients. Duarte, Carlos M. and Carina L. Chiscano “Seagrass biomass and production: a reassessment” Aquatic Botany Volume 65, Issues 1–4, November 1999, Pages 159–174. [39] The holobiont and hologenome concepts have evolved since the original definition,[40] and there is no doubt that symbiotic microorganisms are pivotal for the biology and ecology of the host by providing vitamins, energy and inorganic or organic nutrients, participating in defense mechanisms, or by driving the evolution of the host. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, RAP Publication 2013/09, 74 pp. Like all autotrophic plants, seagrasses photosynthesize, in the submerged photic zone, and most occur in shallow and sheltered coastal waters anchored in sand or mud bottoms. 20.2 Overview. The majority of seagrass biomass is usually below the sediment surface. Known as nuisance species, macroalgae grow in filamentous and sheet-like forms and form thick unattached mats over seagrass, occurring as epiphytes on seagrass leaves. (2016) "Microbes drive evolution of animals and plants: the hologenome concept". 191–196. Consumers in seagrass beds are also diverse and consist of small inverte- The function of seagrass as a primary producer can be considered as a use function; specifically, providing food to the marine environment, and eventually to humans, through the food web. However, some climate change models suggest that some seagrasses will go extinct – Posidonia oceanica is expected to go extinct, or nearly so, by 2050. Per hectare, it holds twice as much carbon dioxide as rain forests and can sequester about 27.4 million tons of CO2 annually. Duarte (eds). The mission of the Citizen Scientist Project is to use citizen and professional scientists to monitor and to protect resources, and to share information on the most critical natural resources of Key Biscayne and Virginia Key. [10][11] Seagrasses in the intertidal zone are regularly exposed to air and consequently experience extreme high and low temperatures, high photoinhibitory irradiance, and desiccation stress relative to subtidal seagrass. Historically, seagrasses were collected as fertilizer for sandy soil. 13 Function Of Seagrass You Must Know As waste filter, medicines, as a shelter for the other marine lifes, primary producer and material of paper. Consumers in seagrass beds are also diverse and consist of small invertebrates such as gastropods, amphipods, shrimps, and annelids, and some vertebrates such as rabbitfish, green sea turtles, manatees and waterfowl [12, 13]. Primary consumers, such as sea turtles and fish, eat the seagrass. Trapping sediment benefits coral by reducing sediment loads, improving photosynthesis for both coral and seagrass. [50][4][3] The long blades of seagrasses slow the movement of water which reduces wave energy and offers further protection against coastal erosion and storm surge. [3][4] Between about 70 million and 100 million years ago, the three independent seagrass lineages (Hydrocharitaceae, Cymodoceaceae complex, and Zosteraceae) evolved from a single lineage of monocotyledonous flowering plants. [42] Plant-associated microbial communities impact both key components of the fitness of plants, growth and survival,[43] and are shaped by nutrient availability and plant defense mechanisms. 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