Food Plants and Nature of Damage: Both larvae and adults are destructive. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 28(3):181-183. In Southern and Southern East Asia, the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (BSFB) is the most harmful pest for eggplant. Most commonly purple, the spongy, absorbent fruit is used in several cuisines. High on nutrients, this vegetable has many health benefits and hence, you should consume it at least once a week. Plant Pathogens. Scientific-orientation Frequency Per cent 1 Low level (up to 16 score) 12 10.00 In India they are commonly found all over the country. The distribution of controversial Bt brinjal seeds among farmers of the 16 flood-affected districts is unacceptable. The botanical name of eggplant is solanum melongena belonging to family solanaceae. Singh D, Chakrabarti AK, 1982. Table 2- Distribution of respondents according to their adoption towards improved practices of brinjal (n=120) Adoption level Category Frequency Percentage Low (9-15 ) 21 17.50 Medium (16-21 ) 55 46.08 High (22-27) 44 36.42 . the use of brinjal (Solanum melongena) and other species of Solanum in the ACSM in India, in particular Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. 6. of cultivators 1. Host range: Oligophagous insect feeds mainly on eggplant, and sometimes on other solanaceous Plants such as brinjal, potato, and chillies, potato. It is summer crops. Adoption of the respondents about practices of Brinjal. It is a serious pest of brinjal, but have also liking for potato and tomato. Two analytical techniques HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) and HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography) were validated to reveal the quality and quantity of pesticide residues (organophosphorus, organochlorine, and pyrethroids) in brinjal samples collected from a local market of Faisalabad. II.4. Brinjal Asia II 1 JQ995277 ... Distribution of B. tabaci genetic groups across India is shown in Figure 1 and Table 2. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 16:207-208. Out of these, brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB), L. orbonalis. Nature of damage: The larva bores into tender shoots in the early stage and causes “dead hearts”. Solanum melongena is grown worldwide for its edible fruit.. The Giant East African Snail Achatina fulica, is a species of large, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusc in the family Achatinidae.It is a macrophytophagous herbivore; it eats a wide range of plant material, fruit and vegetables. The pest is known to cause about 16 and 70% damage to shoots and fruits, respectively. Current Distribution of Vegetable Production As Figures 2 and 3 below show, brinjal is the third most important vegetable of Bangladesh, in terms of both, production area (hectares) as well as in terms of production weight (tons). Damage symptoms ... Morphology, Distribution. It is found mostly on the Indian subcontinent. It is of practical importance to precisely trace the genetic variability in the expanding geographical distribution of the pest. brinjal, controversy over GM crops, seed production of brinjal varieties, distribution Bt of seedling, progress on brinjal cultivation in the farmers’ fields and biosafety Bt guidelines in Bangladesh. Second Edition. Host range and distribution R. solanacearum is a widely distributed pathogen found in tropical, subtropical and some temperate regions of the world. The biggest constraint to brinjal production is the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB). Brinjal, known as baingan in Hindi, is known to be king of vegetables. distribution modeling methods ( Ramírez-Villegas et al., 2010 ; Parra-Quijano et al., 2011 ; Castañeda-Álvarez et al., 2015, in press ). The agricultural extension department has, as New Age reported on Sunday, already distributed 225 kilograms of seeds of the genetically modified aubergine among some 15,000 farmers free in flood assistance. Brinjal or eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important solanaceous crop of sub-tropics and tropics. Distribution of brinjal growers according to size of land holding Sr. No. The spatial distribution of adults of Amrasca biguttula biguttula on the upper, middle and lower leaves of brinjal [aubergine] was investigated in Meghalaya, India, in 1984. In general they are pests of cucurbitaceous and solanaceous vegetable plants. It has an unusually wide host range of 200 plant species belonging to more than 50 families. In Pakistan it is 3rd number in […] The ... Table 1: Distribution of respondents according to their scientific orientation. Eggplant is widely cultivated fruit vegetable. Premise of the Study. The partnership has introduced tools to monitor the production, distribution and inventory management of Bt brinjal seeds as part of the goal to meet international standards. Factors affecting growth and production of pycnidia by P. vexans causing fruit rot of brinjal. The stem and leaves are covered with star-shaped hairs. ... Bacterial wilt in brinjal is a major production constraint and to-date no single. is the key pest throughout Asia [4, 5] In India this pest has a countrywide distribution and has been categorized as the most destructive and serious pest causing huge losses in brinjal and is considered a limiting factor in brinjal cultivation causing Distribution and status: Insect is limited in distribution. Distribution pattern of foliage insects among the summer vegetables viz. Eggplant or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia where it is attacked by brinjal fruit and shoot borer (BFSB) (Leucinodes orbonalis). It will sometimes eat sand, very small stones, bones from carcasses and even concrete as calcium sources for its shell. Kitamura C, Kawai A, Koyama, 1984. Postharvest losses could be as high as 39% primarily due to diseases and mechanical damaging. Fruit bearing capacity is adversely affected. There is a distinct thickening of stem at the In “Origin of cultivated plants” published in 1886, De Candolle, stated that the species S. melongena has Table 7.1 Mean levels of endline brinjal production and yield, by treatment status.....62 Table 7.2 Impact of Bt brinjal on yields .....64 Table 7.3 Impact of Bt brinjal on … Host range Brinjal, potato, other wild plants belonging to solanaceae, peas. (n=120) S. No. effect i ve management method exists. The brinjal eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (also known as the aubergine; Solanaceae) is the second most economically important solanaceous fruit crop after the tomato, with a total production of approximately 51 Mt in 2016 (FAO, 2017). Top shoots of young plants crump and wither. Eggplant (brinjal) is a popular vegetable that provides an important source of income for small, resource-poor Bangladeshi farmers. Studies on population ecology of Thrips palrni Karny. Singh H, Chand JN, 1986. Although it is not a serious pest, infestations occasionally can be severe. Small Upto 2.00 ha 49 Medium 2.01 to 4.00 ha 22 3. Distribution and status: Indian sub-continent Host range: Chilli, tomato, brinjal and potato Damage symptoms Larva bores into main stem of young and old plants and move downwards. Agriculture is the dynamic force of Bangladesh and it is most important … Older plants become stunted. Race 1 strains from Goa exhibits genetic variability and difference in virulence on brinjal. Singh RS, 1987. distribution in various edible and non-edible plant parts, sixteen different vegetable crops comprising of root vegetables (radish and carrot), tuber and bulb vegetables (Potato and Onion), leafy vegetables (Spinach, Amaranthus, Fenugreek, Mustard and Cabbage), fruit vegetables (Okra, Brinjal… 2.2 Geographic Origin and Distribution Brinjal is considered a native to India where the major domestication of large fruited cultivars occurred. Land holding group Area in hectare No. Eggplant (US, Australia, New Zealand, anglophone Canada), aubergine (UK, Ireland, Quebec, and most of mainland Western Europe) or brinjal (South Asia, South Africa) is a plant species in the nightshade family Solanaceae. It is a major and regular pest of brinjal causing damage to even 30 -50% of fruits or more. 27. Yield losses in Bangladesh have been reported up to 86% and farmers rely primarily on frequent insecticide applications to reduce injury. The HPTLC methods showed linear behavior for standard samples and residue … Varieties of foliage insects invade these vegetable fields and play role positively or negatively. Distribution: Hadda beetles are universally distributed. Brinjal is pungent, bitter, hot in potency, sweet, mitigates kapha and vata, is slightly alkaline, kindles digestion, improves taste and does not aggravate pitta. Population growth and distribution on eggplant in the field and greenhouse [in Japan]. Morphology Solanum melongena is a shrub which grow up to meters in height. Asia I is the most widely distributed genetic group, recorded from 28 locations, followed by Asia II-1 which was found in 20 locations. Distribution pattern on aubergines in the greenhouse [in Japan]. Brinjal is also known as eggplant is grown as fruit. The share of brinjal amounted to 7.8 percent in terms of Bangladesh’s While brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is the second most important solanaceous fruit crop, we lack firm knowledge of its evolutionary relationships.This in turn limits efficient use of crop wild relatives in eggplant improvement. Here, we examine the hypothesis of linear step‐wise expansion of the eggplant group from Africa to Asia. Distribution and status India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma, Srilanka, Laos, South Africa, Congo. range and distribution of R. solanacearum depends on the race and. Asia II-8, Asia II-7, … Tetranychus urticaeKoch. Appendix Figure S2.1 shows that, relative to control households, the distribution of (log) net Bt brinjal yields per hectare is shifted to the right. okra, brinjal and tomato Naureen Rana, Tehmina Amin, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Shahla Nargis, Somia Afzal and Saira Fatima Abstract vegetable crops of Pakistan. The issues addressed are a) Alternative and Complementary Systems of Medicine, b) Problems in establishing the identity of Indian medicinal plants, c) Patterns of distribution of therapeutically active Bt brinjal, additional newer lines that offer increased disease resistance and are better suited to specific locations ... seedling distribution, and monitored the overall implementation of the study. Chemical control of Phomopsis fruit rot of brinjal. Distribution: This is the most serious pest of brinjal throughout the country.Its other host plants include potato, Solanum xanthocarpum, S. indicum, S. nigrum etc. Indian Phytopathology, 35:314-315. Where the major domestication of large fruited cultivars occurred consume it at least once a week once a week,... Constraint to brinjal production is the eggplant fruit and shoot borer ( EFSB ) occasionally... Liking for potato and tomato districts is unacceptable grow up to 86 and! 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