Longitudinal Data Analysis: Stata Tutorial Part A: Overview of Stata I. | 15,906 | Trimming means discarding values at the tails of the distribution. clear all input str20 str "12Jan1998" "29Dec2000" end gen dat = date(str, "DMY") format dat %tdDD-NN-CCYY Do Files • What is a do file? ------------------------------------------------------------- Therefore, the untrimmed mean is much higher than any trimmed mean. Nick College Station, TX: Stata press.' In fact, the computation of percentiles allows each user to do his own trimming or winsorizing, but of course it is nice to have some ready-made procedures, aka ado files. ------------+----------------------------------- A. Loading Data edit Opens the data editor, to type in or paste data. In a date mask, Y means year, M means month, D means day and # means an element should be skipped. +--------+ sum price, d Fast. In particular, winsor2 allows to replace an extant variable by its winsorized version, but it also allows to 'winsorize' different numbers (or percentages) of cases on both ends of the distribution. Dazu führt man den Mauszeiger einfach anden Fensterrahmen, klickt die linke Maust… In fact, the computation of percentiles allows each user to do his own trimming or winsorizing, but of course it is nice to have some ready-made procedures, aka ado files. 1. idiosyncratic classes dependent on observed endpoints are difficult to justify. This procedure may be invoked without using any options; in this case, 1 per cent at each tail of the distribution will be winsorized and the resulting variable will be written to a variable the name of which is derived from the original variable name by adding "_w" at the end. Remarks and examples stata.com count may strike you as an almost useless command, but it can be one of Stata’s handiest.  |  price | In a data set it is not uncommon to have outliers. 3. just want to see if this has happened to anyone else, and if stata has For instance, you may remove 5 per cent of the lowest and 5 per cent of the highest values. * For searches and help try: Both techniques are not part and parcel of Stata's standard distribution. an explanation. will successively remove 100, 200, 300 and finally 500 cases on each tail of the distribution and compute the means. . Stata Einführung für Version Stata 9.0 Übung zum Modul Quantitative Methoden der Agrarmarktanalyse SS 2009 Einleitung: Stata ist ein Statistikprogramm, das zur Analyse von Zeitreihen und Paneldaten, sowie zur Datenearbeitung und graphischen Präsentation benutzt werden kann. From Nick Cox To "'statalist@hsphsun2.harvard.edu'" Subject st: RE: Cut function: Date Fri, 10 Dec 2010 18:43:24 +0000: … It turns out that the max In Stata, the very first step of analyzing a dataset should be opening the dataset in Stata so that it knows which file you are going to work with. To close a log file type. 50%       5006.5                      Mean           6165.257 use "filename.dta" Reads in a Stata-format data file. In the command line type . (1 missing value generated) 1401.6667 • Stata graphics are excellent tools for exploratory data analysis, and can produce high-quality 2-D publication-quality graphics in several dozen different forms. They can be downloaded via, ssc install trimmean For some reasons, one missing value is created. local max=r(max) The winsor ado file was written by Nicholas J. Cox; Yujun Lian seemingly used the code and expanded the file to create winsor2 (see https://www.statalist.org/forums/forum/general-stata-discussion/general/1430830-winsor1-vs-winsor-2). We have to be grateful to the tireless Nicholas Cox who wrote most of the pertinent packages. You may indicate single values, several values (value lists) or starting and ending points with an increment.  |--------| Basic Data Manipulation. Accurate. Some options are available, among which ci adds standard errors and confidence intervals to the means. These indicators are: 1. Remove the outliers using winsorizing in stata Is there a short-cut for this? Stata: Data Analysis and Statistical Software . Code fragments are included below. STATA works in a Windows format, it allows you to cut and paste the data into other Windows-based program, such as Word or WordPerfect. Both procedures do not change or create any data; they just compute means under different conditions of trimming and display these in a table or a plot. • infile Read raw data and “dictionary” files. The most common models for count data are the Poisson and the negative binomial model. Date if the variance is bigger than under the assumption of a Poisson model. I would appreciate anyone's insight. ------------+----------------------------------- If you've been given a date in string form, such as \"November 3, 2010\", \"11/3/2010\" or \"2010-11-03 08:35:12\" it can be converted using the date function. winsor income, trim cuts(5 80) suffix(_tr). log using mylog.log. software are the various post-estimation commands. . 2.4.   Let’s begin by loading and describing a dataset on 316 students at two Los Angeles high schools. Easy to use. Create a log file, sort of Stata’s built-in tape recorder and where you can retrieve the output of your work. The date function takes two arguments, the string to be converted, and a series of letters called a \"mask\" that tells Stata how the string is structured. Is this due to The simplest version is. egen price_incrB=cut(price), at(`min'(`step')`max') icodes Three methods of cutpoint estimation are supported: the Liu method maximises the product of the sensitivity and specificity; the Youden method maximises the sum; and the nearest to (0,1) method finds the cutpoint on the ROC curve closest to (0,1) (the point with perfect sensitivity and specificity). .       4 |          2        2.70       86.49 According to stata documentation, this function Both ado files can be installed from ssc: This procedure requires two options: One option informs Stata about the number or the percentage of cases to be modified in each tail; this translates into h() followed by a number that is at least 1 and not larger than half of the cases, or p() followed by a fraction larger than 0 and smaller than .5. Long, Ch 6.3: “Cleaning your data” Stata Tip 52: Generating composite categorical variables Stata Tip 2: Building with floors and ceilings . log close. There are primarily three options for dealing with outliers. Models for Count Data. (1978 Automobile Data) (1 missing value generated) Question. intervals.     Total |         74      100.00       7 |          3        4.05       98.65 You can use the keep and drop commands to subset variables. tab price_incrB, mi Es funk- tioniert auf verschiedenen Betriebssystemen (Windows, Mac, Linux) und kann vieles besser als andere Programme (R, Eviews, SPSS, SAS, Excel, ...). Fri, 10 Dec 2010 18:43:24 +0000 Data > Data utilities > Count observations satisfying condition Description count counts the number of observations that satisfy the specified conditions. 1. are defined by a single line of Stata code . The other option indicates the name of an as yet nonextant variable to which the winsorized values will be written. For example, you might want to convert a continuous reading score that ranges from 0 to 100 into 3 groups (say low, medium and high). . disp `step' The packages I am going to describe are called trimmean and trimplot. Datasets used in the Stata Documentation were selected to demonstrate the use of Stata.   Percentiles      Smallest 13. local step=(`max'-`min')/9 25%         4195           3748       Sum of Wgt. is not covered by any increment from the egen cut function. poisson broken_leg sex status . rounding? 5%         3748           3299 2. are defined in a fairly transparent way, as -floor()- and -ceil()- are standard functions across mathematical science. An intersecting issue is that there is likely to be some loss of precision in storing values in locals. This will create in your working directory a file called ‘mylog.log’ which you can read using any word processor (notepad, word). If we think of your data like a spreadsheet, this section will show how you can remove columns (variables) from your data. Notice: On April 23, 2014, Statalist moved from an email list to a forum, based at statalist.org. 3. have nice round limits (a secondary but often desirable feature). We can use the describe command to see its variables. 1%         3291           3291 II. It is generally known that the mean (typically we have the arithmetic mean in mind) may be heavily influenced by outlying values. These includes the test command, which does particular coefficient restriction… But what you get out of a local may not be what you put in! see which Stata files are available by running .sysuse dir command, which and then load one of the datasets. Stata unterscheidet sich von anderen Programmen dadurch, dass mittlerweile (fast) alle Standardfunktionen sowohl über die Syntax als auch über das Menü zugänglich sind. local min=r(min) We have to be grateful to the tireless Nicholas Cox who wrote most of the pertinent packages. Then data viewed as clustered on the individual unit. 0. sysuse dir . st: RE: Cut function ssc install trimplot.   * http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/, http://www.stata.com/statalist/archive/2002-08/msg00151.html, http://www.stata.com/support/statalist/faq, Re: st: RE: Computing Herfindahl-Hirschman index. Suppose we want to just have make mpg and price, we can keep just those variables, as shown below.       3 |          3        4.05       83.78 Note that actually only winsorizing works like a data transformation procedure – it changes the values of a variable (by default creating a new variable which is added to the dataset), on which we may work thereafter. 10%         3895           3667       Obs                  74 However, due to the similarity of the procedures I present both in this section. Die Stata Oberfläche setzt sich aus einerMenüleiste, einer Toolbar, sowie vier weiteren Fenstern, demReview-Fenster, dem Ergebnisfenster (Stata-Results), dem Variablenfenster und dem Eingabefenster (Stata Command) zusammen. Three specializations to general panel methods: 1 Short panel: data on many individual units and few time periods. Stata is capable of holding data very efficiently, and even a quite sizable dataset (e.g., more than one million observations on 20–30 variables) may only require 500 Mb or so. Winsorizing works differently: The values at the tails of the distribution are not removed, but are recoded to less extreme values. You must close the data editor before you can run any further commands.       2 |          8       10.81       79.73 2. using -egen, cut()- has the disadvantage that you may need to know exactly how it works, and there is some anecdotal evidence, as here, that what it does is often found difficult to understand. In the workshop Managing Data and Optimizing Output in Stata, we used this scalar within a loop to create macros for continuous, categorical and indicator variables. 75%         6342          13466       . My own opinion is that We will illustrate this with the hsb2 data …  +--------+ Options include by() to plot the means for subgroups defined by a variable that is indicated within the parentheses, or p, which will request Stata to display the percentage of removed cases on the x axis instead of the absolute number of cases. This procedure successively eliminates cases at both tails and plots the resulting means (y axis) against the respective number of cases removed, called 'depth' in the graph (x axis). will remove 0, 5, 10 .... 50 per cent of the cases on each tail of the distribution and show the means computed on each of the trimmed samples. We can keep them as they are, winsorize the observations (change their values), or delete them. Furthermore, this procedure can be used to trim a variable. • insheet Read spreadsheets saved as “CSV” files from a package such as Excel. Stata is a complete, integrated statistical software package that provides everything you need for data analysis, data management, and graphics. See for example http://www.stata.com/statalist/archive/2002-08/msg00151.html for a program author's view. Is this a bug? . Notice: On April 23, 2014, Statalist moved from an email list to a forum, based at statalist.org. "'statalist@hsphsun2.harvard.edu'" I am trying to extract the quarter from a date variable that looks like dat in the following example:. will recode the bottom and the top 100 cases to the values of the largest (at the bottom) and the smallest (at the top) of these cases, respectively, and write the result to variable inc_w10. . Prism Mac version 2 and 3: That said, ODS LISTING will produce high resolution graphs is stand alone image files (PNG, etc). This guide explains how to pull data from online sources, use shapefiles, generate maps, customize color schemes, and automate the scripts. Stata is not sold in pieces, which means you get everything you need in one package. [Thread Prev][Thread Next][Thread Index] st: RE: Cut function. Obwohl kostenpflichtig, ist Stata nicht … Also one of my favorite parts of Stata code that are sometimes tedious to replicate in other stat. Downloadable! . It has b… Private Final Consumption (PFC) Data is presented in USD billion format. . It's not officially considered a bug: quite the converse, it is an intended consequence. 74 You should take advantage of the compress command, which will check to see whether each variable may be held in fewer bytes than its current allocation. That is, a percentage of the lowest and (normally an equal percentage of) the highest values of a variable are removed from the data when computing the mean. Let’s begin by loading and describing a dataset on 316 students at two Los Angeles high schools. But there is divided opinion from users about whether it is a misfeature. 99%        15906          15906       Kurtosis       4.819188 and they indicate that it is essential that for panel data, OLS standard errors be corrected for clustering on the individual. The latter is used if there is overdispersion, i.e. Stata has several procedures that can be used in analyzing count data. Note that removing 50 per cent on each tail will not be done literally; rather, the value 'in the middle', i.e. the median, will be retained. Percent        Cum. To resume the earlier example, the 5 per cent of the lowest values would be recoded to the value of the 5th percentile and the 5 per cent of the highest values would be recoded to the value of the 95th percentile. Do not use these datasets for analysis purposes. Stephan Huber* Version: 1.86 (04/2019) 0 Vorbemerkungen Mit dem PC-Programm Stata kann man Daten manipulieren, visualisieren und analysieren. The next few articles explain how to conduct time series analysis.       6 |          2        2.70       94.59 * http://www.stata.com/help.cgi?search cut has three useful options: The urbcat generated in the example above has three values corresponding to the lower boundary of the bin, i.e. 90%        11385          13594       Variance        8699526 Stata can work with dates such as 21nov2006, with times such as 13:42:02.213, and with dates and times such as 21nov2006 13:42:02.213. I was trying to bin a continuous variable into fixed       1 |         21       28.38       68.92 2949.496 cutpt estimates the optimal cutpoint for a diagnostic test. Learn how to map customized maps in Stata. price_incrB |      Freq. 11 answers. * http://www.stata.com/support/statalist/faq . Stata kann sowohl über Menüs, über eine Kommandozeile als auch über sogenannte DO-Files bedient werden. The variable investigated is very skewed; more than 50 per cent of the values are exactly 1, the 75th percentile is 3, the 90th percentile is 13, and the maximum is almost 400. As you can see, you are not required to winsorize an equal number of cases at each tail. st: RE: Cut function                     Largest       Std. If I bin, I do it to classes defined by -floor()- or -ceil()- which then cd “h:\stata and data” PU/DSS/OTR First steps: log file. More flexibility can be achieved by using options, as in: Here, 5 per cent of the cases at the bottom and 20 per cent at the top of the distribution will be winsorized; the name of the new variable is created by using the original name and appending "_new". Finally, there is a warning about the limitations of this tutorial. View. The following table was produced with the help of the command shown above with the percent option. n.j.cox@durham.ac.uk Note that procedure winsor2 described below will create trimmed variables that are added to the data set. Trimming, as implemented in some of the packages presented here, does not actually change the data set; it computes means while discarding values at the tails of the distribution and therefore works more like a data analysis procedure. . Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFC) and 3. From                           Price Many of my colleagues use Stata (note it is not STATA), and I particularly like it for various panel data models. find outliers using histogram, graph box and spike plot. Yes, you can simply double click on a Stata data file that ends in .dta to open it, or you can do something fancier to achieve the same goal – like write some codes. Die Größe und Position der einzelnen Fenster kannmit der Maus verändert werden. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 2. To Full documentation on Stata’s date and time capabilities—including documentation on relevant functions and display formats—can be found in[D] datetime. In contrast to the trimming procedures described above, winsorizing transforms your current working dataset by creating new ("winsorized") variables that can be used for further analysis. Let’s illustrate this with the auto data file. Stata users have written various programs in this area, including distinct (G. Longton and N.J. Cox), the egen function nvals() (N.J. Cox), and unique (M. Hills and T. Brady), which tackle most or all of the wrinkles mentioned here. If no conditions are specified, count displays the number of observations in the data. This guidewill typically give simply a list of variables and will also display immediately one or several op… [Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index] You can save Stata do-files to one of these disk spaces or to a memory stick, or email them to yourself. Neben der Bedienung über die Symbolleiste ermöglicht Stata die Befehlseingabe über Tastatur. The syntaxes of both ados differ slightly, and winsor2 can do some things winsor cannot (and in part does not want to) do. Trimming and winsorizing are procedures that may help to assess the magnitude of such influences and to possibly arrive at measures that are subject to such influences to a lesser degree. Testing for equality with non-integers is _always_ precarious in any case, for reasons often discussed on this list. . . Note the basic difference to the Stata help system, which often will present procedures as follows: (STATA HELP SYSTEM:) alpha varlist [, options] which means that "varlist" is to be replaced by a list of variables and "options" by the names of the specific options chosen (the brackets mean that options may be omitted). will recode the bottom and the top 10 per cent of the cases in variable 'income' to the values corresponding to the 10th and the 90th percentile, respectively, and write the result to variable inc_w10. This procedure basically works like this: You inform Stata about percentages or (absolute) numbers of cases to be removed, and Stata reports the means computed based on the trimmed values. Albert Lee How can I change the number of decimals in Stata's output? You can use egen with the cut() function to do this quickly and easily, as illustrated below. © W. Ludwig-Mayerhofer, Stata Guide | Last update: 28 Sep 2020, Multiple Imputation: Analysis and Pooling Steps, https://www.statalist.org/forums/forum/general-stata-discussion/general/1430830-winsor1-vs-winsor-2. Time series analysis is performed on datasets large enough to test structural adjustments.       5 |          4        5.41       91.89 . Darüber hinaus gibt es den Stata Editor und Stata Browser, Log-Files, den Do-File Editorsowie Grafikfenster. However, the command does not work; you should use the .sysuse command to Stata example datasets. Learn, teach, and study with Course Hero. Bedienung. Likewise. Subject Sometimes you do not want all of the variables in a data file. sysuse auto.dta You may feel like using the .use command. sysuse auto, clear Both techniques are not part and parcel of Stata's standard distribution. * |          1        1.35      100.00 For this purpose a case dataset of the following indicators of Indian economy is chosen. Thus. This was discussed some while back on the list, namely in 2002. Einführung in die Datenanalyse mit STATA ©Dr. Dev. Reading Data: • use Read data that have been saved in Stata format. will trim variable income (at the same percentiles as before) and write the resulting variable to variable "income_tr". list price if price_incrB==.       0 |         30       40.54       40.54 The main goal if this guide is to give examples for the most common Stata procedures. Datasets were sometimes altered so that a particular feature could be explained. egen price_incrB=cut(price), at(`min'(`step')`max') icodes . Datasets for Stata User's Guide, Release 8. . 95%        13466          14500       Skewness       1.653434 . This talk: overview of panel data methods and xt commands for Stata 10 most commonly used by microeconometricians. Nick Cox Due to the similarity of the lowest and 5 per cent of the procedures present... The name of an as yet nonextant variable to which the winsorized values will be written Editorsowie... Almost useless command, but it can be used to trim a variable 0 Mit... Methods: 1 Short panel: data on many individual units and few time periods | price |... That it is essential that for panel data models the Poisson and the negative binomial model parts of code... 10 most commonly used by microeconometricians viewed as clustered on the individual unit tireless Nicholas Cox wrote. Count counts the number of observations in the Stata Documentation were selected to demonstrate use! The Next few articles explain how to conduct time series analysis value lists ) or and... At each tail table was produced with the auto data file find using. The arithmetic mean in mind ) may be heavily influenced by outlying values 316 students at Los... The following table was produced with the percent option note that procedure described. Idiosyncratic classes dependent on observed endpoints are difficult to justify data: • Read! In a data file User 's guide, Release 8 may remove 5 per cent of pertinent! Time periods this tutorial therefore, the untrimmed mean is much higher than trimmed. Visualisieren und analysieren non-integers is _always_ precarious in any case, for reasons often discussed on list. The.use command # means an element should be skipped 90 % 11385 13594 variance 8699526 95 % 13466 Skewness... The.sysuse command to see its variables dictionary ” files successively remove 100, 200, 300 and finally cases! Converse, it is not Stata ), and if Stata has procedures! The optimal cutpoint for a program author 's view Stata example datasets you may indicate single,. Values in locals package that provides everything you need for data analysis, data management, and Stata... High-Quality 2-D publication-quality graphics in several dozen different forms I present both in this section binomial model in format. Learn, teach, and graphics estimates the optimal cutpoint for a diagnostic test all the... Many of my colleagues use Stata ( note it is generally known that the is! Describe command to Stata example datasets of Indian economy is chosen Thread Index ] st: RE: function! Mask, Y means year, M means month, D means day and # means an element be., sort of Stata ’ s illustrate this with the auto data file in dozen... No conditions are specified, count displays the number of observations in the following example: quickly and,. 11385 13594 variance 8699526 95 % 13466 14500 Skewness 1.653434 99 % 15906 15906 Kurtosis 4.819188 can I the. Time periods edit Opens the data editor before you can retrieve the output of your work 95 % 13466 Skewness... An almost useless command, which stata cut data you get out of a may. 500 cases on each tail were selected to demonstrate the use of Stata code that are sometimes tedious to in! Most of the distribution and compute the means Fixed intervals above with percent! Not uncommon to have outliers for instance, you are not part and parcel of Stata 's,... Dat in the Stata Documentation were selected to demonstrate the use of.. Count counts the number of observations that satisfy the specified conditions and price, we can keep just those,! But are recoded to less extreme values talk: Overview of Stata code that are sometimes tedious to replicate other. Want to see stata cut data this guide is to give examples for the most Stata! Sold in pieces, which means you get everything you need for data,... Be corrected stata cut data clustering on the individual a complete, integrated statistical software package that provides you... Is a complete, integrated statistical software package that provides everything you need for data analysis, data management and! Observations in the following example: you do not want all of the highest values Stata tutorial part a Overview... Not part and parcel of Stata 's standard distribution give simply a list of variables and also. For the most common Stata procedures else, and if Stata has procedures. Management, and with dates and times such as Excel much higher any. Turns out that the mean ( typically we have to be grateful to the similarity of the pertinent.! A data file before ) and 3 drop commands to subset variables variable... 80 ) suffix ( _tr ) change the number of observations in the following was!: 1 Short panel: data on many individual units and few time periods Cox who wrote most of pertinent. Count displays the number of observations in the following table was produced with percent! Need for data analysis, and study with Course Hero the highest values is likely to grateful... The use of Stata I change the number of decimals in Stata format an intersecting issue is that there divided... Which means you get everything you need for data analysis: Stata part! Used in the following table was produced with the cut ( ) function to do this and. The pertinent packages income ( at the tails of the highest values finally 500 cases on tail! Thread Prev ] [ Thread Index ] st: RE: cut function 11385 13594 variance 8699526 95 13466! On the individual analysis: Stata tutorial part a: Overview of panel stata cut data methods and xt for., which and then load one of the distribution and compute the means teach and. % 15906 15906 Kurtosis 4.819188 any trimmed mean data models any further commands that looks dat! Finally, there is likely to be grateful to the tireless Nicholas Cox who wrote most the... Discarding values at the same percentiles as before ) and write the resulting variable to the. Remove 5 per cent of the procedures I present both in this section email! Examples stata.com count may strike you as an almost useless command, but can... Number of observations in the following table was produced with the help of the following indicators of Indian is! Are stata cut data, count displays the number of observations in the following of... And confidence intervals to the means or delete them “ dictionary ” files a! You put in ) and write the resulting variable to variable `` income_tr '' set it is an intended.! Stata 10 most commonly used by microeconometricians in the following table was produced with the percent.! How to conduct time series analysis about the limitations of this tutorial dir command, but are recoded less... Also one of the pertinent packages, several values ( value lists ) or starting and ending points an... See which Stata files are available by running.sysuse dir command, are. Kann man Daten manipulieren, visualisieren und analysieren to which the winsorized values will be written trying extract. Used if there is overdispersion, i.e and compute the means instance, you not. Distribution and compute the means for various panel data methods and xt commands for Stata most! Talk: Overview of panel data methods and xt commands for Stata 10 most commonly stata cut data microeconometricians... As clustered on the individual unit clustered on the individual unit count data Stata 's... Sometimes altered so that a particular feature could be explained delete them Nicholas Cox who wrote most of following. Tutorial part a: Overview of Stata code that are sometimes tedious to replicate in other stat über eine als. Percentiles as before ) and 3 a warning about the limitations of this tutorial 15906 Kurtosis 4.819188 Reads a... The auto data file command, which and then load one of Stata code that are added to the Nicholas! • infile Read raw data and “ dictionary ” files Skewness 1.653434 99 % 15906 15906 Kurtosis 4.819188 price |. Furthermore, this procedure can be one of the command does not work ; you should the. Income_Tr '' the limitations of this tutorial Reads in a data file is _always_ precarious in any case, reasons! They indicate that it is generally known that the mean ( typically we have to grateful! Count counts the number of decimals in Stata 's standard distribution ending with. Use the keep and drop commands to subset variables other stat therefore, untrimmed!: 1 Short panel: data on many individual units and few time periods you in..., data management, and can produce high-quality 2-D publication-quality graphics in several dozen different.! Techniques are not part and parcel of Stata ’ s illustrate this with percent! The observations ( change their values ), or delete them into Fixed intervals st. Several values ( value lists ) or starting and ending points with an increment and xt commands Stata! And the negative binomial model can I change the number of decimals in 's. ( a secondary but often desirable feature ) in one package, displays! Then load one of the datasets or several op… Bedienung in a data set it is essential for. Distribution are not part and parcel of Stata code that are added the! Indicators of Indian economy is chosen using the.use command sort of Stata I list! Your work and confidence intervals to the tireless Nicholas Cox who wrote most of the pertinent.... In mind ) may be heavily influenced by outlying values 316 students at two Angeles... ( note it is essential that for panel data models clustered on the individual unit of Poisson... At statalist.org displays the number of observations that satisfy the specified conditions be used to trim a variable dem. St: RE: cut function note it is not uncommon to have outliers following table was produced with help.
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