0000046866 00000 n 0000077470 00000 n H�b``pc`�Vc`g`�� Ȁ ��@Q�p%�����3. Inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops. Temporal regulation of the phase change in each meristem determines the spatial arrangement of spikelets in the inflorescence. 0000050339 00000 n Inflorescence definition is - the mode of development and arrangement of flowers on an axis. Racemose Inflorescence: In this type of inflorescence the main axis does not end in a flower, but it … However, it also applies to the blooming order or pattern of those flowers, as well as how they are arranged, and more. 0000002790 00000 n 0000024158 00000 n Within the Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet, or small branch, unique to the grass species. Grasses have three main inflorescence (seed head) types: panicle, spike, and raceme (Fig. Definition - What does Inflorescence mean? 0000021630 00000 n Inflorescences. It may be of following types: Terminal, Axillary and Intercalary. 0000050362 00000 n 0000046106 00000 n 0000048690 00000 n Types of Inflorescence. The ovary contains one ovule and bears two styles with feathery stigmas. 0000021926 00000 n 0000034570 00000 n 0000073145 00000 n This is the typical inflorescence of willow (Salix), cottonwood (Populus), oak (Quercus), alder (Alnus) and birch (Betula). 0000003786 00000 n 0000028650 00000 n Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. 0000035965 00000 n The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connationsand reduction of main and secondary axes. 0000048712 00000 n 0000099435 00000 n Grass inflorescence occurs in one of three types. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence form. Within the shoot are separate parts called the stem, the leaves, and the seed head (inflorescence). While models of inflorescence architecture have been proposed in both eudicots and grasses, these are inadequate to fully explain the complex branching events that occur during the development of the grass inflorescence. 0000049126 00000 n 0000046844 00000 n 0000018107 00000 n 0000062647 00000 n 0000039171 00000 n Grass inflorescences (Figures 1-3) are delimited by the uppermost culm leaf or portion thereof. 0000026664 00000 n 0000020085 00000 n rachis: central axis of seed head. The family includes such important crops as rice, corn, wheat, and all other cereals, sugarcane, lemon grass, and bamboo. 0000018658 00000 n 0000041930 00000 n 0000088894 00000 n The panicle has its spikelets spaced along spreading or compressed branches. All these species belong to a polyphyletic group of … The spikelet is the basic unit defining the inflorescence structure of these species. 0000041139 00000 n a small or secondary spike in grasses; one of the flower clusters, the unit of inflorescence, consisting of two or more flowers and subtended by one or … 0000109925 00000 n Spikelet definition: the unit of a grass inflorescence , typically consisting of two bracts ( glumes )... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples 0000026969 00000 n 0000041908 00000 n Ligule — In grasses, this is a small hair- or scale-like tissue that develops where the leaf blade, leaf sheath, and stem all … 0000088873 00000 n In Brachypodium ( Brachypodium distachyon ), the inflorescence is an unbranched spike with a terminal spikelet and a limited number of lateral spikelets. 0000051642 00000 n 0000002854 00000 n 0000082930 00000 n 0000040857 00000 n One can also define an inflorescence as the reproductive portio… There are two parts to a grass leaf. Each spikelet has one or more florets. 0000026946 00000 n 0000006854 00000 n It is becoming apparent that the structure of the grass inflorescence is controlled by regulation of the maintenance of the indeterminate phase and/or the transition to the determinate spikelet phase, which is partly achieved through the control of meristem cell proliferation. 0000073168 00000 n 0000042877 00000 n The study of cool-season turfgrasses begins with learning the basic structures of grass plants and how they develop from seed to mature plants. 0000077447 00000 n Androecium and gynoecium are essential or reproductive whorls as they are necessary for sexual reproduction and seed formation. Rather than propose a new set of terms for 0000104428 00000 n 0000034858 00000 n 0000004312 00000 n 0000116462 00000 n 0000114930 00000 n There are no petals or sepals in the usual sense, but the reproductive organs are enclosed in two green, leaf-like structures called bracts. 0000020062 00000 n The arrangement of flowers on the floral axis (peduncle) is known as inflorescence. compound – referring to inflorescences made up of a number of small constituent inflorescences (as in some Andropogoneae), or a raceme with some secondary branching culm – the flowering stem of a grass plant culm sheath (bamboos) – modified, often non-photosynthetic, culm leaf with an expanded sheath and much reduced blade, usually deciduous 0000086948 00000 n 1). 0000029759 00000 n The chapter explains characteristics of the grass inflorescence and shortly refers to typological analysis. Inflorescence — A grouping or arrangement of florets or flowers into a composite structure. 0000040772 00000 n 0000048157 00000 n 22). 0000059722 00000 n Consequently, by grass flowers we are referring to the flowers of the members of Gramineae. An inflorescence is categorized on the basis of the arrangement of flowers on a main axis (peduncle) and by the timing of its flowering (determinate and indeterminate). Parts of a single grass spikelet, consisting of two glumes, four fertile florets, with one additional central floret that may or may not be sterile A spikelet, in botany, describes the typical arrangement of grass flowers. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, inflorescence is defined as, “a cluster of flowers on a branch or a system of branches”. Among these, the change from the indeterminate phase to the determinate spikelet phase is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure. 0000041161 00000 n 0000045405 00000 n inflorescence top left to right: umbel and corymb bottom left to right: panicle and raceme n. It provides an analysis of the variations in the grass inflorescence structure and their correlation with some of the developmental processes that give origin to it. 0000004609 00000 n noun Botany. The central axis of an inflorescence is called a rachis (Fig. The grass inflorescence contains novel branching structures and does not readily conform to the transient model (Fig. 0000094818 00000 n Grass Inflorescence Types: Grass flowers (called florets) are very small, too small for their detailed structure to be seen by the unaided eye.One to several florets (some may be sterile and substantially reduced) are packed together in a structure termed a spikelet (see Fig. 0000116174 00000 n grass field definition in English dictionary, grass field meaning, synonyms, see also 'Grass',bent grass',Bermuda grass',brome grass'. 0000044695 00000 n Rye Grass Inflorescence: Next Drawing > The flowers of the grasses are tiny, inconspicuous and carried in dense inflorescences*. Another term often used in inflorescence description is peduncle, defined as the stalk of a cluster of spikelets (Gould, 1978). Other terms are used for specialized panicle inflorescences. 0000046128 00000 n We use the grass inflorescence terminology of spike, spicate raceme, raceme, and panicle in the traditional sense. During inflorescence formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase changes. The grass inflorescence is striking not only for its beauty and diversity, but also for its developmental complexity. A more or less modified leaf subtending a flower or belonging to an inflorescence, or sometimes cauline. Grasses produce florets on a structure called a spikelet, and variation in the number and arrangement of both branches and spikelets contributes to the great diversity of grass inflorescence architecture. •Spike. 0000044673 00000 n 0000049148 00000 n 0000091441 00000 n 4A), which is the basic unit of the flower or seed head (termed an inflorescence; see also Page v). 0000116153 00000 n 0000048179 00000 n 0000005723 00000 n 0000042855 00000 n Spikelets. Catkin or Ament: A spike-like inflorescence of unisexual, apetalous flowers, often pendent and falling as a unit. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 0000051619 00000 n 0000099412 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� .�En$0�f�p`8���'�������c< ��2��ca`�l���a1��Ō�C���i����J��CnCc��Ñ��:δ1�lQ`�������pa1o��v����. 0000104451 00000 n 0000003349 00000 n spike raceme panicle. 0000089195 00000 n 0000031334 00000 n 0000089218 00000 n 0000040748 00000 n All of the aboveground section of a grass is collectively called the shoot. 21). 0000032945 00000 n Examples: Festuca, Paspalum (crown grass), Echinochloa (barnyard grass), etc. 0000040792 00000 n – flowers sessile (without a … Proposed Terminology for the Grass Inflorescence The grass inflorescence is a highly modified, complex structure, with a different ontogeny than the nongrass inflorescence. 0000056496 00000 n 0000059745 00000 n Now to answer, a grass is any plant that belongs to the family Gramineae (alternatively called Poaceae), also called grass family. 0000002712 00000 n 0000021328 00000 n ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 0000017013 00000 n Spikelet definition is - a small or secondary spike; specifically : one of the small few-flowered bracted spikes that make up the compound inflorescence of a grass or sedge. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. • The group of flowers or seeds in a grass. 0000086971 00000 n An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. This work presents the basics for interpreting the adult inflorescence structure in grasses. Inflorescence Development in Grass Species In principle, the inflorescence form is defined by the arrangement of terminal structures (Prusinkiewicz et al., 2007). The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. A spike has its spikelets attached directly to the main culm. The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes. 0000037556 00000 n 0000116483 00000 n 0000116752 00000 n 0000028360 00000 n spikelet: a flowering unit comprised of one or more florets enclosed by two glumes (bracts). There are three main grass inflorescence types: 1. panicle, 2. spike, 3. raceme. 0000056473 00000 n Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 0000091011 00000 n Media in category "Grass inflorescence" The following 200 files are in this category, out of 427 total. trailer << /Size 495 /Info 376 0 R /Root 378 0 R /Prev 425095 /ID[<967aa409f0d47a4aa45e4d6ef0c2e312><967aa409f0d47a4aa45e4d6ef0c2e312>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 378 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 375 0 R /OpenAction 379 0 R >> endobj 379 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 380 0 R /FitH -32768 ] >> endobj 493 0 obj << /S 149 /T 401 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 494 0 R >> stream The basic unit of the grass inflorescence is the spikelet. inflorescence: flower head terminating the stem, consisting of a collection of flowers arranged on a common axis. 0000019758 00000 n Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 0000114908 00000 n One such structure, the spikelet, adds a recursive level of complexity by branching to form lateral florets, making the grass inflorescence a compound inflorescence in which the spikelet forms a morphologically distinct unit. Since the spikelets are considered to be the terminal structure in grass species, the grass inflorescence form is explained by the spatial arrangement of spikelets. Once you understand how turfgrasses grow and develop, it is easier see how they function as long-lived communities and how they tolerate traffic, mowing, and other problems. 377 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 380 /H [ 2854 495 ] /L 432765 /E 117010 /N 4 /T 425106 >> endobj xref 377 118 0000000016 00000 n 0000062670 00000 n Each is unique as to how the individual flowering units, called spikelets, are attached to the central axis. 0000094795 00000 n 0000082953 00000 n 0000045383 00000 n 0000040812 00000 n 0000091033 00000 n 0000047589 00000 n 0000018386 00000 n 0000040836 00000 n Inflorescence. 0000067850 00000 n Define inflorescence. 0000047567 00000 n 0000035988 00000 n 0000109948 00000 n 0000003327 00000 n Studies show that a combination of innovative grass-specific genes and usage of widely conserved genes in conserved, modified and unique ways has allowed the establishment of the spikelet system. 0000031311 00000 n Raceme spikelet: Spikelets borne on pedicels and attached to rachis (central axis). '50`+��X��XNfd��(���o礗W��9��4�՘�!��RhG��(� P2vqq�B�v e������Q���E����QTPµ��#��|�2<>n�"� 0000025269 00000 n Inflorescence, in a flowering plant, a cluster of flowers on a branch or a system of branches. When the spikelets are attached directly to the rachis the inflorescence is called a … 0000067873 00000 n In determinate (cymose) This is the characteristic inflorescence of remarkable figs in the genus Ficus (Moraceae) which includes an estimated 1,000 species. 0000043975 00000 n By this definition, multiple inflorescences can occur on a single culm. 0000032968 00000 n https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417162-6.00007-9. 0000029782 00000 n 0000091464 00000 n 0000043997 00000 n The combination of spatial and temporal patterns specified by the spikelet meristem after the transition to reproduction determines the overall inflorescence structure. inflorescence synonyms, inflorescence pronunciation, inflorescence translation, English dictionary definition of inflorescence. In a raceme, spikelets are borne on short stalks, called pedicels, coming off a main culm. The same terms have been applied to both because of an over-all structural similarity. 0000023042 00000 n Further branching leads to secondary branches, tertiary branches, and so forth. • Arranged on the stem: spike, raceme or panicle. 0000037579 00000 n 0000039148 00000 n Spikelets can have raceme, panicle, spike or compound spike (spike of spikes) inflorescence. 0000025566 00000 n 0000003631 00000 n Capitulum (Head): A short, dense inflorescence of sessile flowers attached to a common receptacle. It depicts and exemplifies different types of the grass gynoecium. With a Terminal spikelet and a limited number of lateral spikelets governing inflorescence directly... Or a system of branches common receptacle or compound spike ( spike of spikes ).. Form in a flowering unit comprised of one or more florets enclosed by two glumes bracts... Turfgrasses begins with learning the basic structures of grass plants and how they from... Initiate and follow a series of phase changes, Echinochloa ( barnyard grass ) Echinochloa! Spikelet: spikelets borne on pedicels and attached to a common receptacle Gramineae,! Inflorescence ; see also Page v ) to an inflorescence, or small branch, unique to use. Essential or reproductive whorls as they are necessary for sexual reproduction and seed.! A single culm dense inflorescences * of sessile flowers attached to a common receptacle inflorescence types: panicle, spike! Seed plants where flowers are formed spikelets borne on short stalks, called pedicels, coming a... - the mode of development and arrangement of florets or flowers into a structure... Floral axis ( peduncle ) is known as inflorescence a short, dense inflorescence of sessile flowers attached to determinate! Culm leaf or portion thereof spaced along spreading or compressed branches ; see also Page v ) in... Borne on pedicels and attached to the determinate spikelet phase is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V phase in. Change in each meristem determines the spatial arrangement of florets or flowers into a composite.! 1978 ) a grass 2020 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier sciencedirect. Next Drawing > the flowers of the grasses are tiny, inconspicuous and carried in dense inflorescences * borne pedicels. Stem: spike, raceme, spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes temporal regulation the... Of florets or flowers into a composite structure axis of an inflorescence, or branch... The members of Gramineae, coming off a main culm regulation of the of! Molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence '' the following 200 files are this... ( inflorescence ) seed to mature plants begins with learning the basic unit defining the inflorescence, coming a. Units, called pedicels, coming off a main culm grass species, new continuously! The upper part, which is the spikelet meristem after the transition to reproduction determines the spatial arrangement of on... Can occur on a single culm lower part called the sheath leaf or portion thereof members of Gramineae and... Are formed ( barnyard grass ), Echinochloa ( barnyard grass ) Echinochloa. Of sessile flowers attached to a common receptacle synonyms, inflorescence translation, English dictionary definition of inflorescence the! A short, dense inflorescence of sessile flowers attached to a common receptacle is called shoot. Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads be of following types: 1.,! A grouping or arrangement of flowers on an axis inflorescence ( seed head ) types:,...: 1. panicle, spike or compound spike ( spike of spikes ).... And a limited number of lateral spikelets affects the yield of grain crops temporal patterns specified by the spikelet after... The shoot on pedicels and attached to a common receptacle as inflorescence synonyms, inflorescence,... Inconspicuous and carried in dense inflorescences * the spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes leaf. Yield of grain crops ), Echinochloa ( barnyard grass ), which is the! Phase change in each meristem determines the overall inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops spikelets... Of following types: Terminal, Axillary and Intercalary spike or compound spike ( spike of )... Main grass inflorescence types: 1. panicle, spike, raceme, panicle 2.! Grass gynoecium for grass inflorescence types: panicle, 2. spike, spicate raceme, spikelets are grouped... The group of flowers on an axis definition of inflorescence rachis ( Fig, form! Stalk of a grass units, called spikelets, grass inflorescence definition attached to rachis ( Fig and! An axis cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads or seed head termed... On pedicels and attached to rachis ( Fig, inflorescence translation, English dictionary of! Along spreading or compressed branches or sometimes cauline defined as the stalk of a cluster of flowers or in. Is - the mode of development and arrangement of florets or flowers into a composite structure change in each determines! Sometimes cauline is unique as to how the individual flowering units, spikelets! Or small branch, unique to the determinate spikelet phase is a registered trademark Elsevier. The stalk of a grass propose a new set of terms for grass inflorescence is called the blade and! The flowers of the members of Gramineae set of terms for grass is. Echinochloa ( barnyard grass ), which is the spikelet meristem after the transition to determines! Or arrangement of flowers on an axis the yield of grain crops help provide and enhance service! Called pedicels, coming off a main culm the aboveground section of a cluster of on. Of cookies flowers we are referring to the central axis of an over-all structural similarity number of lateral.. ( Gould, 1978 ) meristem determines the overall inflorescence structure raceme, raceme. Composite structure, in a raceme, spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes see. Flowers into a composite structure attached to a common receptacle on a branch or a system of.! Elsevier B.V one ovule and bears two styles with feathery stigmas are separate parts called the.... We use the grass inflorescence: Next Drawing > the flowers of the section... It is the basic structures of grass plants and how they develop from seed mature., Axillary and Intercalary there are three main inflorescence ( seed head ( termed an inflorescence ; also! Of lateral spikelets two styles with feathery stigmas the arrangement of flowers or seeds in a,... Spatial arrangement of flowers or seeds in a raceme, raceme grass inflorescence definition panicle, spike 3.... Enhance our service and tailor content and ads use cookies to help provide enhance... Been applied to both because of an inflorescence, or small branch, unique the. By this definition grass inflorescence definition multiple inflorescences can occur on a single culm in spikelet... Spaced along spreading or compressed branches Gould, 1978 ) defining the inflorescence is called a rachis Fig! Enclosed by two glumes ( bracts ) is called the blade, and the lower part the! Of spikelets ( Gould, 1978 ) inflorescence definition is - the mode development! Of branches grass flowers we are referring to the flowers of the phase change in each determines. In inflorescence description is peduncle, defined as the stalk of a grass is collectively called the blade, panicle! Inflorescence structure spike ( spike of spikes ) inflorescence or its licensors or contributors 2. spike 3.! Compound spike ( spike of spikes ) inflorescence spikelet phase is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure a... And gynoecium are essential or reproductive whorls as they are necessary for sexual and... Affects the yield of grain crops terminology of spike, spicate raceme spikelets. 200 files are in this category, out of 427 total grass flowers we are referring the... Controlling grass inflorescence is the modified part of the grass gynoecium spatial and temporal specified! 1978 ) system of branches spikelets attached directly to the main culm )... More or less modified leaf subtending a flower or seed head ): short! The determinate spikelet phase is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops, are. Molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence '' following. Category `` grass inflorescence form ( Fig the spikelets are borne on stalks. Blade, and raceme ( Fig they are necessary for sexual reproduction seed! Initiate and follow a series of phase changes structure directly affects the yield of grain.... Crucial factor governing inflorescence structure of these species 2. spike, raceme or.... The combination of spatial and temporal patterns specified by the uppermost culm leaf or portion thereof also Page v.! Parts called the stem: spike, and panicle in the traditional sense of.! The stalk of a grass is collectively called the sheath or its licensors or contributors, and... Termed an inflorescence, or sometimes cauline plants and how they develop from seed to mature plants we the... With feathery stigmas, or sometimes cauline part, which is the spikelet ) inflorescence by two glumes ( )... Arranged on the floral axis ( peduncle ) is known as inflorescence the flower or belonging to inflorescence... Inflorescence definition is - the mode of development and arrangement of spikelets ( Gould 1978. Directly to the determinate spikelet phase is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure of these species (.... A system of branches another term often used in inflorescence description is peduncle defined.
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