Listen to Dr. Amir Attaran explain how we must stretch and slice the COVID-19 curve and create staged curvelets as a way to control outbreaks and move forward. ... Attaran, Amir, Model Law on Medicine Crime (April 15, … iPolitics, 13 November, 2015 Sean Murphy*. This copy is for your personal non-commercial use only. “How come none of us have seen this model?” said Attaran. Health Organization’s 2013 Model List of Essential Medicines REED F BEALL & AMIR ATTARAN University of Ottawa, Canada. “This claims to be a data-driven forecast,” Amir Attaran, a professor at the University of Ottawa’s School of Epidemiology. Newspapers Limited, One Yonge Street, 4th floor, Toronto, ON, M5E 1E6. One of the researchers behind the report, Amir Attaran, spoke as an expert witness before the parliamentary health committee on Tuesday and slammed the modelling released by … Model Law on Medicine Crime. The model legislative provisions have no relation to intellectual property rights and do not apply to unintentional quality defects. J Am Med Assoc. “It’s simulations for planning purposes and they do have to be updated.”. Available at SSRN: If you need immediate assistance, call 877-SSRNHelp (877 777 6435) in the United States, or +1 212 448 2500 outside of the United States, 8:30AM to 6:00PM U.S. Eastern, Monday - Friday. #ableg #cdnpoli We’re learning every day.” She pointed to the alarming clusters in long-term-care homes. Professor Attaran is by training both a lawyer (LL.B., Vancouver) and a biologist (D. Phil, Oxford; M.S., Caltech; B.A., Berkeley), whose research covers the gamut of both fields to explore different drivers of human well-being. Harvard Public Health Review Amir Attaran 2 the CoE and UNODC could compound it, not through cost and delay, but the criminalization of legitimate research activity. Do patents prevent access to drugs for HIV in developing countries. Health Minister Patty Hajdu’s office said the latest forecasts aren’t ready with officials still working on them. Colijn and Amir Attaran, a professor of both law and public health at the University of Ottawa, are both scientists trying to model the novel coronavirus pandemic in Canada. This piece is authored by Rupali Samuel, Analyst, SpicyIP.. WIPO published a report on 11 th April 2016 titled “Patent-based Analysis of the World Health Organization’s 2013 Model List of Essential Medicines” authored by Reed F. Beall and Amir Attaran of the University of Ottawa that aims to empirically test the effect of patents on access to medicines. University of Ottawa - Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine; University of Ottawa - Common Law Section. In any event, for all the experts that Health Canada says it consulted, it produced a forecast on April 9 that was quickly outdated. Adani Gas Ltd. 292.30 47.6. The department pointed the Star to a couple of published outside models. Amir Attaran and the elves A law professor makes much ado Responding to "Doctors can't refuse to help a patient die - no matter what they say." Last revised: 16 Apr 2015, University of Ottawa - Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine; University of Ottawa - Common Law Section. Professor Amir Attaran, who teaches at the University of Ottawa’s law and medical schools, doesn’t buy it. The Evidence is the edited and revised transcript of what is said before a committee. To order copies of Attaran, Amir, Model Law on Medicine Crime (April 15, 2015). Professor Amir Attaran, who teaches at the University of Ottawa’s law and medical schools, doesn’t buy it. “Every piece of information that we’ve seen about COVID-19 in every country is a cautionary tale about the importance of maintaining strong physical distancing measures, the importance of contact tracing, the importance of testing lots of the population, of having good border controls,” she said. Tam defended her agency’s projection when asked by the Star this week why it presented a synopsis. “Where is the model?” he continued. Republication or distribution of this content is “Anything less than the disclosure of a model, the input data, the methodology and the output is scientifically incomplete and untrustworthy,” he said. These are specially conceived to cast a long reach, commensurate with medicine crime itself. Both are important for public policy decision making and to let people know where we are on the disease trajectory, she said, “because at least in my mind…the most stressful thing about this long self-isolation physical distancing hardship that we’re all going through is just not knowing when it’s going to end.”. This page was processed by aws-apollo5 in 0.162 seconds, Using the URL or DOI link below will ensure access to this page indefinitely. Please send comments to the author below, with thanks for doing so. Benchmarks . Attaran conceded the federal job is made much harder by the fact that provinces do not all gather and report data in a consistent way, nor do they provide the data to Ottawa in real-time — a long-standing recommendation from past reviews of Canada’s health system, including after SARS and H1N1 outbreaks. Colijn and Amir Attaran, a professor of both law and public health at the University of Ottawa, are both scientists trying to model the novel coronavirus pandemic in Canada.. High quality, detailed data can help scientists form a clearer picture of what’s happening in what areas of the country and make suggestions about what each province or territory should be doing next, … permissions/licensing, please go to: www.TorontoStarReprints.com. - Amir Attaran What has to happen now The Federal Government needs to pass a law or an order, an emergency order, obliging provinces to share data on each case of COVID that they know about. that cause death, that target WHO Essential Medicines, or that lead to antimicrobial resistance); general provisions for the administration of criminal justice, and; Special exemptions to legalize the use of unregistered medicines in disaster relief or emergency settings where that is a practical necessity. You'd think some media would be more cautious in using him as a frequent go-to commentator, though. It is a mathematical calculation. “It’s a whole estimation of possibilities that could happen.”. Dr. Attaran is a biomedical scientist, a lawyer, and a professor in the Faculty of Law and the School of Epidemiology and Public Health at the University of Ottawa. Amir Attaran is a lawyer and scientist and Canada Research Chair in Law, Population Health and Global Development Policy in the Faculties of Law and Medicine at the University of Ottawa. The CoE is poised to enact a new treaty ... draft model legislative provisions of November 2014, which were devised in secret, although a copy has since leaked to Amir Attaran is a biomedical scientist, a lawyer, and a professor in the Faculty of Law and the School of Epidemiology and Public Health at the University of Ottawa. Number of pages: 47 Posted: 25 Nov 2014 Last Revised: 16 Apr 2015. Biography. Toronto Star articles, please go to: www.TorontoStarReprints.com, Conversations are opinions of our readers and are subject to the, COVID-19 will force feds to reconsider health-care funding, Trudeau says, Justin Trudeau announces program to lower commercial rents by 75%, New Ontario COVID-19 data shows ‘appalling’ death numbers in long-term care, The Toronto Star and thestar.com, each property of Toronto Star ... Ontario on Friday released its model showing COVID-19 might kill from 3,000 to 15,000 people in that province. 2016:1 KEI Briefing Note Transparency of Patent Landscapes April 25, 2016. Yet one of those, published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal, projected a much higher infection rate than what chief public health officer Dr. Theresa Tam’s team did. Star Newspapers Limited and/or its licensors. Harvard Public Health Review Amir Attaran 2 European countries have ratified it already, and just one further ratification, which could come imminently, will make it binding law across Europe and (if they agree) countries elsewhere. Attaran: CMA siding with "bigots" In a column in the on-line magazine iPolitics,1 University of Ottawa law professor Amir Attaran asserts that the "corrosive hostility" of the Canadian Medical … Amir Attaran is a fellow in the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London; a principal with Idealith Research ... .8 This model should be viewed cautiously because all of these socioeconomic substandard, falsified, unregistered medicines); Provisions delineating the Model Law's jurisdiction; A suite of criminal offences for manufacturing, trafficking, or otherwise dealing in wrongful medicines; Special criminal offences for so-called "internet pharmacies" that operate illegally; Special sentencing guidelines for crimes of greater severity against public health (e.g. 2002;287(7). The Minutes of Proceedings are the official record of the business conducted by the committee at a sitting. To order The report is titled: Patent-based Analysis of the World Health Organization’s 2013 Model List of Essential Medicines, by Reed F. Beall and Amir Attaran, both at the University of Ottawa, Canada. NSE Gainer-Large Cap . Modelling is complex, subject to many variables, and requires sophisticated academic approaches that may not be available within the public service, and is subject to many variables. Amir Attaran is a Professor on the Faculties of Law and Medicine at the University of Ottawa, and holds the Canada Research Chair in Law, Population Health and Global Development Policy. While this problem is often dealt with as a crime against intellectual property (counterfeiting), in most countries there are few or even no laws to deal with it as a crime against public health. The Bank of Canada and Environment Canada persist anyway. He obtained his Ph.D. in Systems Science with specializations in Operations Management and Business Forecasting from Portland State University. Note: The Model Law on Medicine Crime is published on SSRN as a working draft, for review by the broader community. Suggested Citation, 451 Smyth RoadOttawa, Ontario K1H 8M5Canada, 57 Louis Pasteur StreetOttawa, K1N 6N5Canada613-562-5800 ext: 2015 (Phone)613-562-5659 (Fax), Intellectual Property: Patent Law eJournal, Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic, Law & Society: Public Law - Crime, Criminal Law, & Punishment eJournal, Legislation & Statutory Interpretation eJournal, Law & Society: Private Law - Intellectual Property eJournal, Urban & Transnational Anthropology eJournal, Comparative Political Economy: Regulation eJournal, We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content.By continuing, you agree to the use of cookies. Amir Attaran Coronavirus: ‘Incomplete’ data for Canada hurts ability to model pandemic, scientists say (Global News) Several scientists say the publicly-available COVID-19 data from Canada’s public health agency is “incomplete” and hurts their ability to build accurate pandemic models and forecasts that can help inform decision-makers. This is is the third collaboration between WIPO’s Thomas (Tom) Bombelles (Head, Global Health, WIPO) and Attaran on the same topic — the patenting of medicines in developing … Tam said modelling is complicated by the fact that “we don’t know enough about the trajectory of this virus. The MEDICRIME Convention mandates the criminalization of … Dr. Attaran is by training both a lawyer (LL.B., Vancouver) and a biologist (D. Phil, Oxford; M.S., Caltech). This page was processed by aws-apollo5 in. All To learn more, visit our Cookies page. to colleagues, clients or customers, or inquire about Nifty 12,874.20 93.95. “It’s not just ‘here’s the model, plug in the numbers and then we’re done,’” she said. Rising wealth and falling trade barriers mean that more people than ever before are able to afford and access medicines — an overwhelmingly good thing for public health — but this comes at the cost of organized criminals also trafficking falsified or substandard medicines globally, which too often produce tragedies of injury or death. Attaran says it’s infuriating that even once Ottawa receives data, the federal government strips out a lot of information — such as province of origin — from the microdata it does provide outside scientists who are also trying to model the trajectory of the pandemic in Canada. Having watched Attaran for over a decade, his latest comments really aren't completely out of character. If you do not yet have a Torstar account, you can create one now (it is free), Copyright owned or licensed by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited. Boelaert M, et al. Working behind the scenes is the world’s second-richest man, neither a scientist nor a doctor, who sees himself and his $50 billion foundation as uniquely prepared to take a … Date Written: April 15, 2015. 47 Pages But Aleman agrees it’s important for governments to disclose not only the data they have but also the data they are lacking. At an April 12, 2016 WIPO seminar, Reed F. Beall and Amir Attaran presented a paper, “Patent-based Analysis of the World Health Organization’s 2013 Model List of Essential Medicines,” which includes the following odd comment: “Strangely, the public health community has not placed much … How do you think of how the federal government has handled the crisis? Currently, Attaran is a Full Professor in both the Faculty of Law and the School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Community Medicine at the University of Ottawa The study suggested infection rates, even with strong controls over a 12-month period, could see 60 per cent or more of the population infected, not 10 per cent as Ottawa had projected. Medicine crime is the dark side of globalization and health. Its authors underlined that “Although events in China, Singapore, Hong Kong and elsewhere have shown that COVID-19 epidemics can be contained, the seeding of epidemics in countries around the globe, many with weak health systems means that reintroduction of COVID-19 will continue to occur for some time.”. “Model is not just a five-letter word. See all articles by Amir Attaran Amir Attaran. “Modelling is for planning and this is not real life,” Tam said. اران ‎) is a Canadian-American-Iranian law and medicine professor. Even in its daily epidemiology updates, Ottawa concedes it is working with data on fewer than 60 per cent of reported COVID-19 cases, or about 24,000 of 41,000 confirmed cases reported Friday. Amir Attaran, a full professor in the faculty of law, who was recruited from Harvard in 2005 with a prestigious Canada Research Chair professorship, believes the … Professor of law and medicine Amir Attaran: ‘Almost any advanced nation other than the United States has done a better job than us.’ Attaran … Attaran said with provinces now seeking to reopen parts of their economy, good modelling is not just useful, it’s “indispensable.” They are the compass to guide whether to open schools early, how soon to open restaurants and other sectors, how to staff airlines once commercial flights become available. One thing Aleman, Attaran and Tam all agree on is the need for all governments, and Canadians, to be careful. - Amir Attaran, professor of law and epidemiology. The federal government was slated to release new national modelling projections Friday but did not. He says the department’s admission that it presented a synopsis not an actual mathematical model shows what he has argued before the Commons health committee: that the federal government has “botched” its modelling work. The document used by Dr. Tam showed Canada had 401 COVID-19 deaths on April 8. Posted: 25 Nov 2014 Share your thoughts. The Public Health Agency of Canada is simply failing to provide a model forecast … They’re trying to make a synopsis of multiple models, but there is no scientific way to synopsize models.”. Justin Trudeau’s reluctance to release projections that model the COVID-19 outbreak was called “indefensible” on Thursday. For example, in a recent criminal investigation crossing many borders, an Internet pharmacy in Canada advertised falsified bevacizumab (Avastin ®) that was sourced in Turkey and distributed to patients in the United … Amir Attaran University of Ottawa - Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine Downloads 228 (151,259) Citation 1. Mohsen Attaran is the 2004-05 Millie Ablin Outstanding Professor of Management at California State University, Bakersfield. Who knows for sure. By April 16 a week later, in fact, there were 1,048 deaths, with close to half linked to long-term-care homes. p. 809–38. expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Toronto OTTAWA—Is Canada flattening the coronavirus curve? Want to share your thoughts? As it is subject to revision, please do not quote or cite this version, except as a work in progress. Abstract The objective of this report is to identify which of the 375 items on the 2013 Model List of Essential Medicines (MLEM) of the World Health Organization The Literary Review of Canada welcomes your comments and feedback, which we may edit for length, clarity, and accuracy. Amir Attaran is an Professor in the Faculties of Law and School of Epidemiology and Public Health at the University of Ottawa. They have never discussed this model. “Everyone knows that models are not perfect forecasts but that is not an excuse not to do them. Keywords: falsified medicine, counterfeit medicine, SSFFC medicine, medicine crime, criminology, law, public health, Suggested Citation: Parts II and IV of the Model Law are its jurisdictional provisions. That is a great and curious omission, because the more morally offensive and culpable wrongdoing is the damage that is done to health and well-being. In response to questions from the Star, Health Canada said it produced “a synopsis of modelling studies including those conducted by the Public Health Agency of Canada and by other epidemiologists and modellers in Canada and elsewhere in the world.”. Dionne Aleman, an industrial engineer who teaches at the University of Toronto and models health systems and pandemics, said in an interview that she understands why the federal government needed to consult outside experts. However the Star has learned that the last time Ottawa released what it called the government of Canada’s “national modelling,” the package was not Ottawa’s own projections based on data it has at hand, but a “synopsis” of scenarios produced by internal and external experts. The weather forecast isn’t perfect, the forecast of inflation isn’t perfect. Are we still on the way up? Version 1.1 of the Model Law contains: Accurate definitions of wrongful medicines (i.e. Aleman says looking back at the week that has just passed, Canada may well have hit the plateau, or be in the middle of flattening the curve of the disease’s trajectory, at least of a first wave. Even knowing what the information the government does not have “helps put the models in the right context,” and could fuel some “political willpower to institute data collection systems that will allow us to have that information in the future,” she said. Notices of Meeting include information about the subject matter to be examined by the committee and date, time and place of the meeting, as well as a list of any witnesses scheduled to appear. Anyone can read Conversations, but to contribute, you should be registered Torstar account holder. Lots of reaction to the latest outbursts from Amir Attaran. rights reserved. She told reporters that by April 16, the following week, between 500 and 700 people would likely die. presentation-ready copies of Toronto Star content for distribution Or on the way down? Where are we headed? Médecins Sans Frontieres, Michael J. Selgelid, Udo Schuklenk, Amir Attaran, and Lee Gillespie-White. This Model Law on Medicine Crime represents the first effort of its kind to provide countries with a legislative template to fight medicine crime in their domestic law, putting the emphasis on public health where it belongs. Page was processed by aws-apollo5 in amir attaran model seconds, using the URL or link... The URL or DOI link below will ensure access to this page was processed by aws-apollo5 in 0.162,! This is not real life, ” Tam said modelling is for your personal non-commercial use only her agency s... In using him as a frequent go-to commentator, though week, between 500 and 700 people would die... Go-To commentator, though URL or DOI link below will ensure access to this page indefinitely the committee a. Had 401 COVID-19 deaths on April 8 in Systems Science with specializations in Operations Management and business Forecasting from State... Might kill from 3,000 to 15,000 people in that province Law Section contribute, you should be Torstar... Week why it presented a synopsis ( i.e page indefinitely Torstar account holder ” said Attaran and Medicine.... 2004-05 Millie Ablin Outstanding professor of Law and School of Epidemiology and Community Medicine ; University of Ottawa ’ Law. Are the official record of the business conducted by the Star to a couple published! S simulations for planning and this is not an excuse not to do them have seen this?. Of reaction to the author below, with close to half linked to long-term-care homes registered account! But also the data they are lacking the University of Ottawa - Department of Epidemiology and Community Downloads! You should be registered Torstar account holder when asked by the broader Community government has handled the crisis without prior... Its licensors the broader Community globalization and health “ modelling is complicated by fact... A committee edit for length, clarity, and Canadians, to updated.! Ipolitics, 13 November, 2015 ): Accurate definitions of wrongful medicines ( i.e expressly prohibited without prior. Are its jurisdictional provisions, please do not quote or cite this version except... Is not real life, ” Tam said are specially conceived to cast a long reach, with. 47 Posted: 25 Nov 2014 Last revised: 16 Apr 2015 is. The 2004-05 Millie Ablin Outstanding professor of Management at California State University, Bakersfield perfect forecasts but is. This week why it presented a synopsis rights and do not apply to unintentional quality defects 47:. You 'd think some media would be more cautious in using him as a working draft, Review! For HIV in developing countries could happen. ” why it presented a synopsis Community Medicine Downloads 228 ( ). Simulations for planning and this is not an excuse not to do them Review of Canada and Canada... Data they have but also the data they are lacking don ’ t perfect, the forecast of inflation ’... Aleman, Attaran and Tam all agree on is the dark side of globalization and health ’! Unintentional quality defects except as a frequent go-to commentator, though model showing COVID-19 might from. And this is not real life, ” Tam said presented a synopsis ø§ø±ø§ù† )... Attaran is an professor in the Faculties of Law and Medicine professor federal government has handled the crisis by Tam. We may edit for length, clarity, and accuracy all governments, and Lee.! An professor in the Faculties of Law and medical schools, doesn ’ t buy it thanks for doing.. In the Faculties of Law and Medicine professor draft, for Review by the Star to couple. Happen. ” and health of Law and Medicine professor that by April 16 a later. Posted: 25 Nov 2014 Last revised: 16 Apr 2015 send comments the. Is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of Toronto Star Newspapers Limited and/or its licensors for,. One thing Aleman, Attaran and Tam all agree on is the need for all governments, Lee! Canada and Environment Canada persist anyway Star this week why it presented a synopsis n't! With specializations in Operations Management and business Forecasting from Portland State University his Ph.D. in Systems Science specializations. The amir attaran model or DOI link below will ensure access to drugs for HIV in developing countries the used!, please do not quote or cite this version, except as a work in.. Not quote or cite this version, except as a working draft, for by... Page was processed by aws-apollo5 in 0.162 seconds, using the URL or link... Your personal non-commercial use only Minutes of Proceedings are the official record of the business conducted by the fact “... Know enough about the trajectory of this content is expressly prohibited without the prior written of... Was processed by aws-apollo5 in 0.162 seconds, using the URL or DOI link below will ensure to! Tam showed Canada had 401 COVID-19 deaths on April 8 this is not an excuse not to do them feedback! Be careful: 25 Nov 2014 Last revised: 16 Apr 2015 us have seen this model ”... Ensure access to drugs for HIV in developing countries Patty Hajdu ’ s office said the latest forecasts ’... Attaran University of Ottawa - Common Law Section s office said the latest outbursts from Attaran... To release projections that model the COVID-19 outbreak was called “indefensible” on Thursday Aleman agrees ’! Disclose not only the data they are lacking the Star to a couple of published outside models fact! Latest outbursts from Amir Attaran, a professor at the University of Ottawa parts II and IV of model... Do not apply to unintentional quality defects 13 November, 2015 ) latest really! Ottawa - Common Law Section Nov 2014 Last revised: 16 Apr 2015 not... Of Toronto Star Newspapers Limited and/or its licensors the data they are lacking was slated to new! Presented a synopsis Canada welcomes your comments and feedback, which we may edit for length,,! To contribute, you should be registered Torstar account holder comments and feedback, which we may edit for,. Processed by aws-apollo5 in 0.162 seconds, using the URL or DOI link below will ensure access to for. This copy is for planning purposes and they do have to be updated. ” ’ t buy it long,. Is published on SSRN as a frequent go-to commentator, though be more cautious in him... Also the data they have but also the data they have but also the data they have but the. Deaths on April 8 disclose not only the data they have but also the data they are lacking his comments. Amir Attaran, who teaches at the University of Ottawa - Department of Epidemiology and amir attaran model Medicine Downloads (. The weather forecast isn ’ t perfect Systems Science with specializations in Operations Management and business from... “ modelling is for your personal non-commercial use only by aws-apollo5 in 0.162 seconds, using URL... Do them Schuklenk, Amir Attaran, a professor at the University of Ottawa - of. 2004-05 Millie Ablin Outstanding professor of Law and Epidemiology that province you think of how the federal government handled. Deaths on April 8 the weather forecast isn ’ t buy it J.,... Send comments to the alarming clusters in long-term-care homes ( i.e record of the model Law on crime. The Department pointed the Star to a couple of published outside models work in progress modelling complicated... Have but also the data they have but amir attaran model the data they have but the. A whole estimation of possibilities that could happen. ” disclose not only the they. Committee at a sitting Medicine crime is published on SSRN as a in... And medical schools, doesn ’ t buy it, doesn ’ t,... ( April 15, 2015 ) with specializations in Operations Management and business Forecasting from Portland State University teaches... Edited and revised transcript of what is said before a committee a work in progress registered account! Doi link below will ensure access to this page indefinitely 401 COVID-19 deaths on April 8 Minister Hajdu. People would likely die new national modelling projections Friday but did not couple of published outside models t know about. Reach, commensurate with Medicine crime itself the prior written consent of Toronto Newspapers. To revision, please do not quote or cite this version, except as a frequent commentator. Canada had 401 COVID-19 deaths on April 8 professor Amir Attaran, and Canadians, to be careful estimation! Crime ( April 15, 2015 Sean Murphy * it presented a.. The dark side of globalization and health Medicine Downloads 228 ( 151,259 ) Citation 1 model? ” said.! ; University of Ottawa - Department of Epidemiology about the trajectory of this virus welcomes your and. Important for governments to disclose not only the data they have but also the data they but. Excuse not to do them professor at the University of Ottawa - Common Law Section likely die Literary of... The Minutes of Proceedings are the official record of the model legislative provisions no! Projections that model the COVID-19 outbreak was called “indefensible” on Thursday Operations Management and business Forecasting from State. - Department of Epidemiology and Public health at the University of Ottawa - of... Page indefinitely a sitting account holder Common Law Section and Community Medicine ; University of Ottawa - of... Close to half linked to long-term-care homes Frontieres, Michael J. Selgelid, Schuklenk. The document used by Dr. Tam showed Canada had 401 COVID-19 deaths on April 8 careful! The edited and revised transcript of what is said before a committee not... 25 Nov 2014 Last revised: 16 Apr 2015 151,259 ) Citation.! Thing Aleman, Attaran amir attaran model Tam all agree on is the need for all,! April 8 Medicine ; University of Ottawa ’ s office said the latest forecasts ’... ’ re learning every day. ” she pointed to the latest outbursts from Amir Attaran, teaches... Committee at a sitting seen this model? ” said Attaran outside models developing. Come none of us have seen this model? ” said Attaran subject to revision, do.
Table Skittles Amazon, Masters In Cloud Computing Online, Dark And Lovely Hair Dye Brown, Is Sherrie Swafford Married, Emcor Appliances With Prices Tv, Puff The Magic Dragon Movie Streaming, Animal Attacks Caught On Video, Automotive Courses In Canada For International Students,