Spanish colonization brought the advantages of wealth and technology to the Philippines. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. People often get confused between colonialism and imperialism; they are actually quite similar and the only difference is that imperialism focuses more on the culture and changing it. This essay will focus on concept colonialism and its reasons. These products were loaded into the galleons and brought to Acapulco. Such is the case with the Philippines which was a Spanish colony from 1521 to 1898 when the colonial rule ended with a Filipino revolution cut short when Spain ceded the country to the Americans with the signing of the Treaty of Paris for twenty million dollars. The seriously needed agrarian reform that had generated mass support for the Philippine revolution was hardly considered by the new Filipino politicians (Pomeroy, 1970). The influx of American officials, soldiers, teachers, and businessmen into the city led to the immediate construction and improvement of urban amenities. The staple food was rice, but root crops and cotton were cultivated, and any surplus was bartered with the crops of other barangays and whatever household needs of the inhabitants. RELIGIOUS RESULTS DURING SPANISH PERIOD The wall of Intramuros in Manila is a remnant of the Spanish colonial period. When the Spanish and Portuguese thrones were united, ships from Japan and Portuguese ships from Malacca, India, Siam, Cambodia, and Borneo also came to Manila bringing spices, precious stones, ivory silk, and other products. In the wake of modern civilization, globalization connected the world closer and closer. FERNANDEZ KOSI. Agoncillo, Teodoro A. Such traces of Islam as there were in the North were quickly rooted out by the Spanish, before they had had time to modify the existing traditional society. The Galleon Trade was the first and biggest monopolistic trade between Asia and the Americas. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1959. Colonial powers introduced Western schools and healthcare, resources that often had a positive effect on the lives of the colonized people. Some may say that giving the Philippines an opportunity to become bilingual learning English and knowing their own dialect, was a benefit from the U.S. colonization (PH 2006) Another Pro that some would agree upon is the fact that the Philippines had a weak government (PH 2006). The conversion of land to private property exposed the native population to more economic exploitation. The British took over their land basically without the Africans knowledge. The Treaty of Paris bilked them of the dearest object of their rebellion.”. Spain lost, and so they had to hand over the Philippine islands to the United States, who then took their place as overseers for the next fifty years. Locating at the entrance to the gulf of Mexico, Cuba separates the east from the west and the developed north form the undeveloped south. Colonialism is a political-economic phenomenon whereby various European nations explored, conquered, settled, and exploited large areas of the world. Most of the administrations during the 19th and early 20th centuries used traditional terms for that form of government. The Philippines: A Past Revisited. No unity, no proper government, divided tribes. Based in San Francisco, California, POSITIVELY FILIPINO magazine is your window on the Filipino diaspora. The Spanish introduced formal education and founded scientific institution. But as government operations normalized beginning in February 1945, as schools reopened, and as commerce and industry resumed their activities, Manila residents left their places of evacuation and rejoined life in the city. Spanish-Filipino mestizo costume, 1800s Chinese-Filipino mestizo costume, 1800s Spanish-Filipino mestizo costume, 1800s: An important impact of Spanish rule in the Philippines is the creation of a mestizo culture with entrenched landed interests and a highly skewed land distribution. TheCenterfor Philippine Studies at theUniversity ofHawaii at Manoain 1992embarked onanambitious programtoexaminecritically themeaningandimpactofthe"AgeofDiscovery" on Philippine culture and society following Columbus' voyage to the Americas in 1492. The Philippine trade with China, which antedated the Spanish conquest, was the foundation of the Manila-Acapulco Trade. America has always been a leader in many areas. Through this, the government was able to preserve peace and order around the country and has collected taxes in order to build schools and other public works. With the United States Congress enactment of a law incorporating the Philippines into the American free trade market, American goods entered the Philippines free of duty and Philippine exports were given the same treatment in the United States. They came back in huge numbers and were augmented by migrants from the provinces that were also devastated by the war, in search of jobs, greater security and education. Bigger than the British, French, and Dutch East India Companies trade with Europe, it thrived for almost two and a half centuries. However, because of other government priorities and lack of political will this plan was overtaken by the outbreak of the World War II. Southern Philippines, in the islands which the Spanish never controlled. The power which undertakes the colonization is usually wealthy and well developed. But still, the meaning of colonialism and imperialism are debatable, Colonialism has influenced globalization, and in the key areas of economy and politics. The country is divided into three main areas: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. An excerpt from the author's book, Metro Manila: My City, My Home. “Globalization is the process in which people, ideas and goods spread throughout, Colonialism occurs when one nation takes control of another. The personal and economic insecurity that hounded the Tagalogs became the harbinger of the land problems underneath whose weight the Filipino peasantry is still struggling. Although the British created a more developed civilization with the many aspects they brought to Kenya, they greatly affected Africans economically, politically, socially and culturally. Despite the difference between French and British colonialism, the impact on blacks remained the same, and is clearly displayed through the gradual assimilation with each foreign group. Mentor Books. Cuba, an island in Caribbean, is inhabited by 11 million people and occupies 42,804 square miles. Perhaps, the most significant, far-reaching, and enduring instrument the Spaniards introduced that has altered Philippine economic and social structure is the institution of private land ownership. Result of these are, we adapted their culture, traditions, and even their languages which we used until today. The Bell Trade Act delimited Philippine sovereignty through continuing United States control over the exchange rate of the Philippines and the “parity clause” provided in the Act. Also, globalization and colonialism, are both products of history, and requires a dialectical view. Author has 711 answers and 6.2M answer views. Manila was a thriving barangay (local term for community) of some 2,000 people when the Spaniards found it in May 1570. Spain claimed to have conquered the New World first with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, while the English … Although many of the explicit discriminatory practices based on race are frowned upon in the U.S. today, that does not suggest that they do not still exist. Under the Americans, Manila grew and rapidly developed following a plan for the development of the city prepared in 1905 by the Chicago Architect Daniel H. Burnham. Lack of interest in farming by most individual Spaniards (who enjoyed enormous profits from the galleon trade), eventually left large-scale agricultural production to the religious orders. Social unrest was fueled further by the abuses of colonial and religious authorities, and conflicts between and among the Insulares (Spaniards born in the Philippines), the mestizo class, and the Peninsulares (Spaniards born in Spain who were regarded as elite). Bowling for Columbine Michael Moore Documentary. The war years had resulted in massive destruction of the city and greatly reduced its population. In fact, a major reason for the bitter mass resistance against the American forces was the betrayal of the Filipinos’ hopes for economic and social emancipation. Free trade with the United States not only perpetuated economic inequality, it also fostered the continued political dominance of the traditional landed and educated elite of Philippine society, a consequence with lasting significance for the government of the city of Manila. Manila Post Office Building, Intramuros with San Agustin Church, Manila, February 1945. The POSITIVELY FILIPINO online magazine chronicles the experiences of the global Filipino in all its complexity, providing analysis and discussion about the arts, culture, politics, media, sports, economics, history and social justice. POLITICAL SCIENCE. They brought with them a new culture focused on different values, and new markets. Moreover, less obvious than during the Spanish era but no less unjust, the natural resources of the Philippines were developed to support the commercial and industrial interests of the colonizer, this time the United States. Through this, the government was able to preserve peace and order around the country and has collected taxes … Spanish colonization of the Philippines brought the disadvantages of foreign diseases to the natives. The purpose of this paper is to make connections of the key ideas of Robert Bartlett’s use of these words ethnicity and colonization in his book “The Hanged Man” drawing from his own explanations from his articles, “Medieval and Modern Concepts of Race and Ethnicity” and “Medieval and Modern Colonialism.” Bartlett attempts, in his own discussions, Advantages and Disadvantages of Colonialism. It doesn’t mean they will cut the communication permanently but it shows the Philippines must stand and not only hoping for the support coming from the Americans. Given the limited number of missionaries at the time, the Synod of Manila adopted the policy of reduccion or deliberate resettlement of the population to facilitate mass conversion to Catholicism. New roads and bridges were built. For a long period of time, they were undisturbed following their traditions and living their life based on their cosmic worldview, but this all changed when the Europeans came to the Americas. For one, they created the transistor, which allowed people to listen to live broadcasts of current news and events. After some 30 years, the amount of trade with the United States increased ten-fold, but with imports higher than exports. The Chinese population outside Intramuros (Walled City of Manila) remained large compared with the Spanish community, despite the massacres resulting from their periodic uprisings, and consequent expulsions by the colonial authorities. Spain used Manila as base of operation for its centralized colonial administration of the Philippines because of its strategic location and other advantages. 2. With more government studies on housing, the Legislature appropriated funds to construct low-cost houses for laborers mostly in Quezon City since it had a much bigger land area than Manila. Nathaniel von Einsiedel was the Commissioner for Planning of the former Metro Manila Commission from 1979 to 1989, after which he joined the United Nations as Regional Director for Asia-Pacific of the Urban Management Programme. There are a few pros and cons to this situation. The book is available through its publisher Assure at http://www.assure.ph. As Jacob Schurman, Chairman of the First Philippine Commission, admitted: “This was a bitter pill for the Filipinos, who had taken up arms and shed their blood primarily with the object of expelling the friars and confiscating their property. They also organized a system of popularly elected local government officials and set up a national legislature where Filipinos were gradually allowed to participate in the governance of their affairs. Members of the principalia (former datus,, their families and descendants) also sold or donated lands over which they assumed private ownership but were actually communal lands. THE SPANISH COLONIZATION IN THE PHILIPPINES The Philippines was very lucky because our country was rich in natural resources. A country cannot be a colony for over three hundred years and not imbibe the culture of the colonizer. Philippines - Philippines - The Spanish period: Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. Spanish domination was established with minimum use of force and control was secured largely by the evangelizing work of the Spanish religious missionaries. New York and Toronto: The New American Library, Inc., 1969. And that is the reason why many foreign countries had colonized our country. Consequently, towards the end of the American regime, Manila’s pre-war problems like congestion, poverty, slums, inadequate public services and other urban problems were not only evident but had escalated and become critical. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1976. Tranvia and Autobos routes of the Manila Electric Railroad and Light Company in 1932. Manila Bay and Intramuros,as visualized by the Spaniards in the mid-1800s. On the other hand, many resented the discriminatory parity clause and continuing control over the monetary exchange policy. The Pros And Cons Of Spanish Colonialism; ... Postcolonialism: The Concept of Cultural Erasure, Inequality and Violence Colonization can be dated back to 1492 with the Spanish venture led by Columbus. Superpowers, like America, bring with them modern technologies and introduce these to smaller nations. Unlike the Spaniards, the Chinese had more intermarriages with the native population. List of Pros of American Imperialism. But if Spain contributed to the fertilization of the Philippine heritage and the “Europeanization” of its environment, America further invigorated it with the Anglo-Saxon way of life, the “city-beautiful” concept, and the English language. Consequently, demand for Philippine agricultural exports, particularly sugar, increased, making large agricultural estates even more attractive. The Spanish Manilans (the Insulares) lived comfortably from the profits of the trade, while the Chinese in Manila were the middlemen, acting as consigners, providing credit to merchants, packing the merchandise for the galleons, engaging in retail trade and providing a variety of skills needed by the urban population. During the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, some 30 to 40 Chinese junks came to Manila each year, laden with silk and other textiles, porcelain, fruits, farm animals and others goods. Their actions reinforced slavery in a new light of mental captivity, which, Europe and Asia in the nineteenth century, these nations to developed a dependence for economic growth due to exploitation of the people and land. Spanish colonization brought the advantages of wealth and technology to the Philippines. The little island nation is culturally diverse due to its long history of Spanish and US occupation, and many of the larger islands have their own language, foods, and religious influences. There was a population and agriculture increase, providing more work for Filipinos. The “friar estates” were expanded through additional purchase, donations from Spaniards and Filipinos, and usurpation of contiguous Tagalog landholdings, usually communal lands. The Spanish colonization of the Philippines brought about numerous influences because the Spaniards had the luxury of time in penetrating the Filipino culture. Manila’s harbor was modernized. New York: International Publishers, 1970) Shalom, Stephen R.. The colonization of the Philippines contributed to growth of science and technology in the archipelago. As the Tagalogs lost their individual and communal lands, they became tenants, share-croppers, and paid or unpaid farm laborers, who were ultimately pushed to revolt against their foreign exploiters. What if some people are deprived of their right to education? Manila’s rapid development and affluence during the 16th and 17th centuries depended totally on the prosperity of the Galleon Trade, forced labor, tribute tax, and forced purchase of agricultural products from other parts of the country to support the colonial bureaucracy based in Manila. It linked the Philippines with Spain and the outside world, and served as the seat of government and administration, ecclesiastical center, military outpost and center of inter-island commerce and foreign trade. Headed by a chief called datu, these communities were social units or kinship groups rather than political units. Defenders of modern imperialism and colonialism long pleaded their case in terms, In the late 1700’s and early 1800’s, colonialism was a constant threat to the Natives living in the Americas. However, here are different. Pros - Education, System of Government, Democracy, English, Cultural influence. In most academic writing, Africa’s economic growth was understood to be limited during the period of colonialism, however in Bayart’s writing, it is explained how African societies used “dependence as a mode of action” to reap benefits for themselves. Parish schools were established where religion, reading, writing, arithmetic and music was taught. The Spanish Colonization in the Philippines. At the end of American rule, the Philippines remained a “one crop economy almost entirely dependent on the United States as market and supplier of manufactured goods.”. Answer (1 of 2): There are a number of advantages and disadvantages to colonization.Advantages of colonization Firstly, in the past, areas which have been colonized have been quite poor or underdeveloped. During the early years of Spanish rule in the Philippines. Positively Filipino LLC • 1813 El Camino Real, Suite 3 • Burlingame, CA 94010 • firstname.lastname@example.org • (415) 894-5350, Filipino American National Historical Society (FANHS), Titchie Carandang-Tiongson and Erwin R. Tiongson, Positively Filipino | Online Magazine for Filipinos in the Diaspora. It usually imposes on the country, taking advantage of it. But the Philippine government felt that it had no choice but to accept the parity clause because of the desire to get the badly needed World War II damage payments promised under the Philippine Rehabilitation Act. In this effort, it is seen that these African nations were not able to benefit from said terms agreed on the, Bartlett’s usage of terms such as “ethnicity” and “colonialism”, addresses an important question of modern concepts in our understanding of the medieval past. Advantages Of Spanish Colonization In The Philippines 965 Words | 4 Pages. American policies still sustained the dependent development of the Philippine economy and society even after World War II. At first, the US was unselfish and worked to benefit the Philippines instead of America. The Pros And Cons Of Housework Consequently, much of the friar estates ended up in the hands of the Filipino elite as well as American individuals and corporations. Cushner, Nicolas P. Landed Estates in the Colonial Philippines. Direct participation in the Galleon Trade was limited to the Spaniards in Manila – the merchants, civil servants and religious orders – who served as commercial intermediaries, and the Chinese traders at the “Parian.” The native population were excluded, supposedly because of their lack of capital and trading experience. Monograph Series No. the Spanish took advantage of the already divided up people in the Philippines and easily dominated by them. The Tydings-McDuffie Law or The Philippine Rehabilitation Act and the Bell or Philippine Trade Act, both enacted by the United States Congress on April 30, 1946, two months before Philippine independence, made sure that the Philippines would continue to be economically under the control of the Americans. The Filipino-American War lasted over three years, but the sporadic resistance to the new regime continued for many years. We can see American use its power to help Philippines taking out of Spanish colony. It laid down the pattern of present urban settlements in the Philippines with the church, bell tower and convent occupying a prominent place in the town center together with the municipal hall, which became known as the “town plaza complex” in 20th century urban design parlance. It has 17 regions, 122 cities, and 42,025 barangays. The Hispanization of the Philippines: Spanish Aims and Filipino Responses, 1565 – 1700. In retrospect, Manila’s prosperity as brought by the Galleon Trade contributed to rapid urbanization. The Spanish missionaries also used Manila as initiating point of their evangelization activities. The policy aimed at bringing the people debajo de las campanas – within the hearing distance of the church bells. Prior to the Spanish, local rulers were already trading with other Asian countries, notably China, Cambodia, and Thailand. It's the third largest nation that speaks English in the world. Constantino, Renato. The parity clause would subsequently be used to exert influence on the direction of the country’s economic development. Increased production of cash crops accelerated the concentration of ownership of agricultural estates in the hands of the select few who became the new landed gentry (the hacienderos). However, the rapid rise in Manila’s population resulted in slum dwellings as the cost of urban land and the cost of living increased. He returned to the Philippines in 2004 and has since been Principal Urban Planner of CONCEP Inc., a private consulting firm specializing in sustainable urban development and management. A156110TASB11 Quezon City: Tala Publishing Corp., 1975. Cons: Military conquest, political subjugation, lots of killing, dissent supression and in short, all the usual “cons” of being part of an empire trough military means. The Pros And Cons Of Early English Colonization 1250 Words | 5 Pages. In the first years of American rule, Philippine exports exceeded imports. The Spanish governors-general gave land grants, which often included communal lands, to Spaniards and native principales. Manila’s initial wealth was derived from the profitable trade between Acapulco, Mexico and Manila, known in colonial times as the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade. Part of the policy was to baptize the converts and give them Spanish last names in alphabetical order by town so that evangelization would be well organized (Cushner, 1976). Although the United States granted political independence to the Philippines in 1946, it retained control over 23 army, navy, and air force bases in the country and continued to exercise significant control over the direction of reconstruction and subsequent Philippine economic development. The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than three centuries, the longest period that the Philippines experienced foreign rule. In order to understand and appreciate its contemporary problems and challenges, it will be helpful to look back briefly at certain events in its history that planted the seeds of many of its present conditions. The Spanish conquest ofthe Philippines in the 16th century is partofthe controversial "Columbian Marching westward for more than a century, conquering and displacing Native Americans and Mexicans, the U.S. had reached the limits of continental expan-sion. Colonialism developed from imperialism, which can, Lulwa Al woqayyan These rules were also frequently unenforced. 6. The Americans introduced universal public education with English as medium of instruction, the ideals and institutions of American democracy, and modern amenities of urban living. The process involved requiring dispersed barangays to constitute into compact but larger communities and reducing their number (thus the term ‘reduccion’) so that they can be easily and quickly called to attend church rites and be accounted for their regular contributions. Before the Spanish arrived, land ownership was largely communal and land use was based on usufruct rights. Cushner, Nicolas P. Spain in the Philippines: From Conquest to Revolution. Philippines - Philippines - Martial law: In September 1972 Marcos declared martial law, claiming that it was the last defense against the rising disorder caused by increasingly violent student demonstrations, the alleged threats of communist insurgency by the new Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), and the Muslim separatist movement of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). POSITIVELY FILIPINO is the premier digital native magazine celebrating the story of the global Filipino. On one hand, traditional exporters hailed the continuation of their privileged treatment. The Spanish control and exploitation of Manila and the rest of the country were facilitated enormously by three factors: (1) the policy of reduccion or forced resettlement (2) the institution of private land ownership, and (3) the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade. Those are some reasons on why the Spanish easily conquered our land. The advantages of colonization in the Philippines included a number of modernizations, ranging from roads to capital cities to universities, as well... See full answer below. The McKinley Administration believed that the end of Spanish rule in the Philippines would stop imperialism, promote capitalism, and foster a desire for freedom. The two laws restored the status quo of the Philippines before the war, by perpetuating the country’s dependence on the United States as market of its select cash crops, as source of raw materials critical to the US economy, and as consumer of American manufactured goods (Shalom, 1980). They had subsistence economies with agricultural production geared mainly to the needs of the community. Pomeroy, William J. American Neo-Colonialism: Its Emergence in the Philippines and Asia. Sparked by the brief Spanish-Cuban-American War of 1898, the Philippine War marked an important step in America’s emergence as a global power. Colonialism has impacted many countries; it is the act of a strong and resourceful country taking over a weaker country. Binondo Church, Tranvia over San Fernando Bridge, 1914. RELIGIOUS RESULTS DURING SPANISH PERIOD The Spaniards ruled the country, brought the Christian religion to the country and was responsible for a lot of colonial and religious buildings throughout the country. While the city of Manila and its surrounding areas prospered from the Galleon Trade, the rest of the country remained economically stagnant during the first two centuries of Spanish rule. Example such as the relationship between Britain and India will demonstrate this. 1. Many of its problems fostered by centuries of colonial rule and its slow and erratic socio-economic growth continue to afflict present-day urban life, greatly affecting national development. Stringent rules governing real estate transactions were promulgated by the Spanish colonial regime to prevent the fraudulent transfer of native landholdings and the sale of communal lands. As a result, the colony can benefit from the wealth and technology of their colonizer. Light industry developed in Manila and its suburbs, paving the way for the opening of Manila and other ports of the country to world trade at the beginning of the 19th century. Diseases to the new amenities and attractions altered very much the City ’ s METHOD are EXTREME HASTENS. Fortified to secure the Spaniards came, a large extent the pattern of land to property!, Democracy, English, Cultural influence used to exert influence on the other hand, many the. First and biggest monopolistic trade between Asia and the Americas the 19th and 20th! Visayas, and new markets exceeded imports particularly sugar, increased, making large estates... Cons - colonial thinking, Abuse of Filipinos in the hands of the entire nation and the Treaty of,. What if some people are deprived of their right to Education Manila as seat of government experienced foreign rule location! 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