In order to cope with this need for positive emotions measurement, Izard ’s (1977) Differential Emotions Scale (DES) was modified by Fredrickson so as to include a far wider set of positive emotions. Fredrickson, Grewen, et al., 2015, Confirmation Study) to test whether positive emotions (assessed by the MHC-SF or by 7 consecutive daily reports of 10 distinct positive emotions, via the modified Differential Emotions Scale [mDES], Fredrickson, 2013) predicted the inverse of the CTRA gene expression profile. Two external judges rated emotions in the same 552 home dream reports using the same scale. The mDES includes a wider variety of positive emotions in order to assist with scientific research. Although centered on evidence that has emerged from Fredrickson's Positive Emotions and Psychophysiology Laboratory (PEP Lab), it features key findings from other laboratories as well. Results obtained with the two methods differed in that the self-ratings, 1.2. Modified Differential Emotions Scale The modified Differential Emotions Scale (mDES) measured the frequency with which people experienced positive and negative emotions over the past 2 weeks ( Fredrickson, 2013 ; Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh, & Larkin, 2003 ). Here, we aimed to assess dream emotions and their relationships with wake emotions through the modified Differential Emotions Scale (Fredrickson, 2003), which includes a broad array of both positive and negative emotions. mDes 6-item. The DES was formulated to gouge the emotional state of individuals at that specific point in time when they are responding to the instrument. 2 weeks. This version of the Modified Differential Emotions Scale (mDes; Fredrickson et al., 2003) was developed to minimize response burden in an experience sampling study among adults with schizophrenia (Chomistek & McCormick, 2015). To do this, the PEP Lab uses a variant of the modified Differential Emotions Scale (mDES, see Appendix; Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh, & Larkin, 2003) selected to fit the temporal frame of a given study design. Thus, the modified Differentia l Emotions Scale (mDES) was created to be a more encompassing measure of positive emotions, than In order to cope with this need for positive emotions measurement, Izard’s (1977) Differential Emotions Scale (DES) was modified by Fredrickson so as to include a far wider set of positive emotions. dream emotions, positive and negative emotions, content analysis, modified Differential Emotions scale National Category Neurosciences Identifiers URN: urn:nbn:se:his:diva-11294 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:his-11294 DiVA, id: diva2:840466 Subject / course Cognitive Neuroscience Educational program Psychological Coach experiences in dreams with the Swedish modified Differential Emotions Scale (smDES; Fredrickson, 2013). The Differential Emotions Scale (DES) is a standardized instrument that reliably divides the individual's description of emotion experience into validated, discrete categories of emotion. The mDES1 expanded on the Differential Emotions Scale (DES; Izard, 1977) to include a far wider set of positive emotions. Despite the increasing interest in sleep and dream-related processes of emotion regulation, their reflection into wake and dream emotional experience remains unclear. Theory Modified Differential Emotions Scale mDES The mDES is a modified version of Izards DES introduced by Fredrickson.