Delphiniums are the official July birth flower. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Delphinium variegatum is a species of larkspur known by the common name royal larkspur. It features bushy, compact, and well-branched lacy leaves and loosely arranged single purplish-blue blooms. The D. belladonna group averages 3 to 4 feet tall with a spread of 2 feet. (2020). This variety blooms from early to midsummer. They do not cause contact dermatitis, but the plants contain poisonous alkaloids such as delphinine and ajacine (3). The elegant blooms form dense and sturdy flower spikes and bloom from late spring to late summer. They are within the surface layers of the soil. The leaves are alternate and long-stalked. It grows up to 2 to 3 ft tall and 1.5 to 2 ft wide. They should be fed at least twice – first in early spring and another later in the season (1). Prized by many gardeners, they are available in a wide range of sizes, from dwarf varieties under 2 feet tall to those with towering, 6 feet blooms. These species grow wild in Oregon in the United States. These plants are native to the Northern Hemisphere and high mountain areas in Africa. Facts: Delphinium. Like other perennials, delphiniums would benefit from ample and regular watering. Bloom colors range from blue and purple to white, cream, and pink. Also part of the ‘New Millenium’ series from the New Zealand hybrids group is the ‘Royal Aspirations’ cultivar. According to a legend, the delphinium flower bloomed from the blood of Greek god Aias (or Ajax) as he was killed during the Trojan war. Growing Region: Zones 3 to 9. These herbaceous perennials prefer fertile, well-drained, and medium-moisture soil in full sun to light shade. Lancaster.unl.edu. It can be done to lateral flowers when the bloom begins to decline, or to the entire stem back to the foliage at the plant’s base if there are no more flower buds. Fruits are many-seeded follicles. White Flower Farm is a family-owned mail-order nursery located in northwestern Connecticut. Dislikes the hot and humid climates of the deep South, but generally has better tolerance for these conditions than most of the delphinium hybrids. Delphiniums produce follicles, which are dry dehiscent fruit that splits open on one side. The delphinium flower gets its name from the Greek origin Delphin, which means dolphin. Native: Northern Hemisphere. They can be single, semi-double, or double. Delphinium (Delphinium, Larkspur, Staggerweed) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox. There is something very special about blue flowers. Summarized below are some of the best delphinium cultivars available. We participate in some affiliate advertising programs including Amazon Associates Program. Application of all-purpose fertilizers after planting is advised since delphiniums are known as heavy feeders (2). This delphinium cultivar typically reaches a height of 1.5 to 2 ft and a spread of 1.5 ft after 2 to 5 years. The beautiful blooms bring forth joy and warmth that they make great gifts to cheer up someone. Stately and architectural, Delphiniums are annuals, biennials or perennials with mounds of dark green, glossy foliage adorned by impressive flower spikes in late spring to early summer. The lower growing varieties make colorful addition to containers. Chinese delphinium (Delphinium grandiflorum, D. chinense) Also known as bouquet delphinium or Siberian larkspur, this heat-tolerant species produces large, deep blue flowers that grow in bushy masses of loose, asymmetrical formations. Three Delphinium species are under the threat of extinction – the D. leucophaeum, D. oreganum, and D. pavonaceum. The plants form mounds of dark green, glossy foliage topped in early summer by the dramatic, spurred flowers that are perfect for bouquets. Instead, they have a large number of extra sepals. The flower spikes light up the rocky glades of Arkansas in spring. Among the breeder-favorite delphiniums is the D. elatum from the Swiss Alps, D. bruninianum from the Himalayas, D. cheilanthum from Siberia, and the D. formosum from Armenia. The plant grows up to 6 ft tall and 4 ft across, and often require staking for support. You can find them throughout the Northern Hemisphere, including tropical Africa’s high mountains. The cultivars ‘Butterball’ and ‘Rosemary Brock’ are just a few examples of popular short varieties of this delphinium group. The delphinium name comes from the Greek word delphis, which translates to ‘dolphin’ referring to the shape of the plant’s flower buds. Delphinium Growing and Care Guide. Install stakes early in the growing season to provide early support. The native species of larkspurs are both annuals and perennials; they return from seed or perennial rootstocks every year, and are much better for warm gardens than the hybrid Delphiniums. Delphiniums have compound, green, deeply divided leaves with three to seven palm-shaped lobes (3). Needs protection from strong winds. Tall larkspur typically grows 4-6' tall and features loose terminal racemes of gentian blue flowers which bloom in summer. Belladonna Group, or Delphinium x belladonna (4). Candle Delphinium ‘Galahad,’ as others call it, blooms from early to midsummer. The flower juice of Delphinium consolida is used to make a blue ink when mixed with alum. (2020). As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases (at no extra cost to you). It is endemic to California, where it grows in mountains, valley and coast in woodlands and grasslands. The Missouri populations are known to occur on wooded limestone slopes above the Jack's Fork and Current Rivers in Shannon and Howell Counties. All members of the genus Delphinium are toxic to humans and livestock. It reaches up to 4 to 6 ft tall and 1 to 2 ft wide. It’s Possibly Extirpated in DC. Gardeners can be a romantic, optimistic bunch who fall for plants that, though beautiful, are difficult and buy them anyway. Delphiniums are also known as larkspurs, which is an annual species of delphinium. Some native species are found in forest or natural areas in rich woods and in mountains. [online] Utah State University Extension. Included in this group are the ‘Pegan Purples’ and ‘Dasante Blue’ cultivars, as well as those in the famed New Millenium series. Delphinium flowers beautify the summer garden with showy, spiky blooms on a tall, sometimes towering stem. Explore Cornell – Home Gardening – Flower Growing Guides – Growing Guide. What are the secrets to the correct care of delphinium? For more beautiful flowering plants, check our guide here! Delphinium flowers range from an iridescent inky-blue to deep purple, the plant's four to seven foot flower stalks are stately and eye-catching, and the plant is abundant and long-flowering. penardii (Huth) L.M. When it does get hot, plants can melt out and die back to the ground. They are a great addition to beds and borders, and they make excellent cut flowers with their stunning blooms in different colors. It comprised primarily of hybrids between D. elatum and D. cheilanthum. Dwarf varieties, like D. grandiflorum, range 1 to … To prevent the occurrence of this fungal disease, keep the foliage as dry as possible, and maintain proper planting space. Delphinium is a famed ornamental plant that brings height and a splash of color to home and commercial gardens. Plant in well-drained soil amended with organic matter. Another origin of delphinium comes from Greek mythology. Because of this, tall varieties require staking. The stems of delphiniums are hollow and easily break when exposed to strong winds and rain. Delphinium grandiflorum. Often grown as an ornamental, the elatum group of delphiniums requires extra care and maintenance. Read more for tips about delphinium planting and how to get the best performance from grow… One of the best things about them is the fact that they are perennials! Belladonna Group: Upright, loose and branching perennials with single flowers that grow 3 to 4 feet tall. One of the highly recognized white delphiniums is the Delphinium ‘Magic Fountain White’ cultivar. They showcase numerous single, semi-double, or double flowers in early to mid-summer. This herbaceous perennial reaches about 6 ft in height when fully matured. Delphiniums are also widely popular as dried flowers. When planting, secure that the top of the root ball is leveled with the soil. Read on to learn more about the facts and different types and cultivated varieties of these stunning perennials. They are native to many parts of the northern hemisphere as well as mountainous areas in Africa. There are over 500 known species of delphiniums in different parts of the world. (2020). Culture: Site plants in a location that receives at least six full hours of sun and is protected from the wind. There are over 300 species of delphiniums which belong to the Ranunculaceae family, which are all native to the Northern Hemisphere. The typical insect pests of delphiniums are aphids, mites, and leaf miners. These species grow wild in Oregon in the United States. Varies by type. Flowering occurs in summer. Appreciates some afternoon shade in hot summer climates. Remove spent flower spikes to encourage additional bloom and/or a possible second, albeit sparse, autumn bloom. Best massed or in small groupings. If you're lucky, they may come back as it cools back down. Delphiniums offer dozens of eye-catching cultivars such that deciding which one to plant can be quite a hurdle. Many flowers bloom up the long spikes from early to midsummer. Anchor roots are the primary roots of the plant. The modern delphinium flower may be a single or double rosette in popular blue or red, pink, white, violet and yellow. While the Greeks came up with the name delphinium, it was the English who named the flower larkspur. The leaves are deeply-cut. Single-form delphinium flowers have five sepals. They are hand crossed by the breeder in order to produce the highest quality seed. Individual flowers (to 1" long) are complex and asymmetrical and feature five sepals, one of which is spurred into a distinctive prong resulting in the common name. Generally, delphiniums are relatively easy to grow but can be moderately tricky to maintain. Since 1950 we have been providing a wide range of perennials, annuals, bulbs, shrubs, vines, amaryllis, gardening tools & supplies, and gifts for gardeners. May be grown from seed. Delphiniums come in a range of shades. The ‘Pagan Purples’ is a long bloomer cultivar that showcases flowers from early summer to early fall. Taller varieties form an incredible backdrop for perennial plantings and all types look at home in both formal and informal beds. Delphinium flowers have different forms depending on the number of their sepals and petals. This species is taller, blooms later and has more abundant foliage than most other native U.S. larkspurs. Other common delphinium diseases include black leaf spot, Botrytis blight, crown rot, and other fungal leaf spots. A cottage garden favorite, Delphiniums boast spikes of brightly colored flowers in cool colors. Delphiniums from this group present alluring flowers of blue or white, which blooms in mid-summer. Horses are also affected by … Delphinium plants are herbaceous perennials that add colors to summer gardens with their spectacular spikes of vibrant flowers. Plant them in areas that protect them from strong winds. The flowers make excellent border plants and cut flowers. Delphiniums, on the other hand, are short-lived perennials. Because of their alluring spikes and height, they suit well in cottage gardens or gardens with a free design. This group of delphiniums is moderately challenging to maintain but easier to grow than the elatum group. Delphinium elatum, commonly known as delphinium, is an herbaceous perennial of the buttercup family that is native to clearings, woodland margins, and river valleys from southern and central Europe to Siberia. Another famed group of delphiniums is the Belladonna group, which is also known as the Delphinium sp. On the forest floor of California oak woodlands typical plant associates are Calochortus luteus, Cynoglossum grande and Calochortus amabilis. https://lancaster.unl.edu/hort/articles/2002/delphinium.shtml, https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1801&context=extension_histall, https://plants.ces.ncsu.edu/plants/delphinium/, http://www.gardening.cornell.edu/homegardening/scene09de.html, https://www.ars.usda.gov/pacific-west-area/logan-ut/poisonous-plant-research/docs/larkspur-delphinium-spp/, Edelweiss Flowers (Leontopodium alpinum): How to Grow and Care, Cosmos Flower: Types, How To Grow and Care, Thryallis Shrub (Galphimia gracilis): How to Grow and Care, Sweet Pea Flowers (Lathyrus odoratus): Types, How to Grow, and Care, The Best Soil for Growing Succulents and Cactus. In general, delphinums are perennial in zones 3 to 7 and don't thrive in regions with constant heat. Many gardeners wonder how to grow delphinium and some avoid planting them after hearing that the plant is difficult to grow. Space plants at least two feet apart. This group comprises compact, generally short delphinium varieties with a bushy growth habit. A dwarf variety, fully matured ‘Delfix Blue’ delphiniums reach more or less 1 ft tall and 0.5 ft wide. Many plant breeders crossed different delphinium species around the world and came up with better-performing delphinium varieties, as well as delphinium varieties exhibiting new flower colors. Water at the base of the delphinium plant and keep the foliage dry to prevent diseases like powdery mildew. The Anderson’s larkspur or known scientifically as D. andersonii is an endemic species to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the western United States while the tall larkspur (D. exaltatum) originates from the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern part of North America. Delphinium exaltatum, commonly called tall larkspur, is native to Eastern North America from Pennsylvania and Ohio south through the Appalachians into northern Alabama, with several small, isolated populations existing in the Ozarks in far south central Missouri. Aphids make the leaves curled and distorted. var. Delphiniums are legendary perennial plants that make excellent borders and cut flowers. These herbaceous plants are a gardener’s favorite, particularly for cutting gardens, informal gardens, and cottage gardens. The common name ‘larkspur’ depicts the flowers that resemble a lark’s claw or spur. Deer-resistant and doing best in full sun or partial shade, the flower is of a double-petal variety that has sturdy stems and looks great in … Some people think that delphiniums are similar to the Consolida larkspur, but the two plants are, in fact, different. A cultural practice that encourages plants to produce more blooms is called deadheading. Available at: Plants.ces.ncsu.edu. Because of this, they are also often referred to as the ‘Queen of the Border.’. We include here a brief history of the origins of delphiniums of the elatum (tall) type, which is the plant usually thought of when the word "delphinium" is mentioned.This is the tall flowering type commonly seen in photographs of stately gardens. Planting should be done in the spring with 1 to 3 ft spacing between plants. These plants are native to the Northern Hemisphere and high mountain areas in Africa. There are many varieties and types of D. elatum in common cultivation as well as probably over 500 other species growing in the wild. Native plant areas. A single flower of Delphinium carolinianum has tones of bright, gem-stone blue flanked by a violet spur and white whiskers. This particular cultivated variety of delphinium presents densely packed spikes of salmon-pink flowers that are streaked with red. Although poisoning in humans is not common, these plants often affect the livestock (5). Some of the most popular grandiflorum delphinium cultivars are the ‘Blue Butterfly,’ ‘Summer Morning,’ and ‘Blue Mirror.’. Like most recognized ornamental plants, these perennials have become a subject of hybridization. The crown links the root system and the shoot system of the plants. Delphiniums thrive in cold and moist climates and are native to the Northern hemisphere, most notably in the mountainous African tropics. Larkspurs generally grow best in cool summer climates. Delphinium varieties range from dwarf 15-inch plants to towering 6-foot beauties. Elatum Group: These are the tallest spiked hybrids growing to 6 feet or more.‘Blue Nile’ is a medium plant bearing semi-double, bright, and mid-blue flowers with white centers (called bees). Typically, the root system of delphiniums has a crown and two types of roots extending from it- the anchor roots and the feeder roots. The name delphinium refers to an entire genus of Delphinium spp. The flower stalks bloom with branched spikes of single or double flowers in shades of blue or white in early summer. Powdery mildew is a common disease of delphiniums, especially when there are poor air circulation and high humidity. Delphiniums, commonly known as larkspur, are a go-to choice for home gardeners who want to make showy statements in their gardens, and for good reason. For tall types, some of the popular ones include the ‘Fanfare,’ ‘Mother of Pearl,’ and ‘Boningale Glory.’. Read more about other interesting flowering plants through our article on the best perennial plants for your garden. delphinium carolinianum Zones US, MS, LS; USDA 6-8. Plants in this group are native to Russia and China. One of the most important things to keep in mind is that delphiniums don't like hot summersthey perform best in mild weather. Feeder roots, on the other hand, are thin, young roots that take up nutrients and water from the ground. Delphiniums like a frosty winter. The plant, particularly the flowers, leaves, seeds, and stems,  may result in a burning sensation in lips and mouth, vomiting, numbness of throat, diarrhea, weak pulse, respiratory system paralysis, muscle spasms, convulsions, and even death if consumed in high amounts (3). Cyclamen mites, in particular, result in stunted and deformed plants. The ‘Black Knight’ delphinium displays semi-double dark purple flowers with dark eyes forming tall spikes and deeply-cut green leaves. Native Area: Northern hemisphere. Delphinium exaltatum, commonly called tall larkspur, is native to Eastern North America from Pennsylvania and Ohio south through the Appalachians into northern Alabama, with several small, isolated populations existing in the Ozarks in far south central Missouri. (2020). The meaning and symbolism of delphiniums are quite interesting. This type of delphinium is solid white in color and has white centers as well, giving it a pure, exquisite look. Palmately divided, 3-5 lobed, deep green leaves. The flowers form columnar spikes of single to double florets in a wide range of colors, including blue, white, purple, lavender, and pink. The elatum group can be further divided into three types: short varieties, medium varieties, and tall varieties. Delphinium barbeyi is a favorite for many hikers; it is certainly one of my favorites. It presents vivid violet-purple blooms with buff eyes and glossy, dark green divided leaves. ... Delphinium are toxic and have a history of making cattle sick. Popular cultivars from this group include ‘Black Knight,’ ‘Blue Bird,’ ‘Galahad,’ and ‘King Arthur.’. Delphinium ‘Pagan Purples’ or Delphinium elatum ‘Pagan Purples’ (Hybrid Bee Delphinium) stands out with its eye-catching dark bluish-purple florets that form sturdy flower spikes with white or brown bees. Different colors of delphiniums convey different meanings. If unsupported, the stalks of this plant snap easily in strong winds. It grows up to about 2 to 3 ft tall and 1 to 2 ft wide. Taller plants may require support. Blue delphiniums signify dignity, while white, pink, and light blue delphiniums symbolize renewal and youth. Family: Ranunculaceae Genus: Delphinium Common Name: Larkspur Origin: Northern Hemisphere, with many species native to the western United States. Many of the flowers have white or black centers known as “bees.” History. The upper pair of petals are fused to form the nectary, while the lower pair, called “honey leaves,” are typically adorned with colored hairs. Growing Zones for Delphiniums. This plant is an English hybrid type of delphinium bred by Dowdeswell's Delphiniums in New Zealand. They always require staking as additional support and protection from strong winds. Latin Name/Common Name- Delphinium carolinianum is in the Buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).The word “delphinium” is derived from Greek, meaning dolphin. It grows up to six feet high and blooms in June. DELPHINIUMS ARE PRETTY TOUGH – ONE OF THE HARDIEST PERENNIALS IN NORTHERN UTAH. The primary toxins are alkaloids that can cause bloating, muscle weakness, paralysis, and even death in cattle. Water deeply when rainwater is scarce, but don’t allow standing water since it causes crown and root rot. It is another common name that is shared with an annual species of the Consolida genus. ‘Blue Bees’ is a Belladonna producing clear blue flowers with white centers. Common Names: Larkspur, Delphinium, Forking Larkspur. [online] Available at. These flowers also symbolize an open heart and a passionate attachment. Delphinium can grow 2 to 6 feet tall, depending on variety. This widely recognized cultivar features spires of pure white blooms and vibrant green leaves. Delphinium Uses. Inside this pouch are the flower’s four true petals. Flowers are single or double and, though blue is the most common color, newer varieties provide reds, pinks, violets and yellows. Narrow plant (just 6 inches wide at base) bears erect, 1- to 3 feet spikes of blue or white flowers. Delphiniums are sometimes referred to as larkspur. While the species mentioned above are from the United States, the D. dasycaulon sub-species is a native to Mozambique in Africa. It produces multiple tall spikes of flowers in deep sapphire to navy blue with a contrasting white bee. To germinate, their seeds need a period of cold in winter that delivers near or below freezing temperatures. GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Little larkspur is a native, perennial forb with an extensively branched fibrous to slightly fleshy root system. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. Three Delphinium species are under the threat of extinction – the D. leucophaeum, D. oreganum, and D. pavonaceum. With their attractive spikes of vivid flowers and equally stunning deeply cut, green foliage, delphiniums are indeed a fascinating addition to any garden. The central smaller flowers, which are called ‘bees’ or ‘eyes,’ may appear in white, brown, tan, black, or striped. The flowers range in color from white to pink, purple, and blue and will range in height from 3-6'. While most delphiniums come in blue or purple hues, the ‘Red Caroline’ cultivar undoubtedly stands out with its unique double bright crimson to reddish-pink flowers that bloom in summer. Delphiniums from the New Zealand hybrids group are medium-sized perennials. Fertilize regularly. One of the most popular delphiniums is the D. elatum ‘Bruce,’ a cultivar that received the RHS Award of Garden of Merit. It grows up to 5 to 6 ft in height and spreads up to 2 to 3 ft. 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