In direct-seeded rice fields with a normal plant population (10 to 20 plants per square foot), rice plants generally produce two to five panicle-bearing tillers per plant compared to 10 to 30 tillers per plant in transplanted rice where more space is available between plants. After panicle initiation, tillers may continue to emerge from preexisting tillers, filling out the space among plants. © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. 2015-16 in 23 rice genotypes under upland rice ecosystem. For … Gramineous plants have a special type of side shoot referred to as a tiller. The web app had an accuracy of over 99% compared with manual counting results. Tillers can also arise from upper nodes, but such tillers are produced late and are less productive (Li et al., 2003; Ishikawa et al., 2005). This breaks the dormancy stage of the seed. When planted into flooded soil, the shoot is the first to emerge from the seed, with the roots developing when the first shoot has reached the ai… Thus, it is necessary to optimize the tiller number to Through applying the Web app to 200 in-field images with 5 to 30 tillers per image, the number of productive tillers detected agreed well with manual counting data, regardless of rice variety or type of mobile phone used for image taking. Botany of Paddy Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world and it is the staple food for over 2.7 billion people. At maturity the rice plant has a main stem and a number of tillers. Several new methods of propagating rice have been developed which allow rice to be cultivated in less conventional areas e.g. However, not every tiller provides high productivity; instead, a sufficient N source leads to the production of tillers with low yield potential. The tillering capacity of rice plants varies with variety, plant spacing, fertility, weed competition and damage from pests. Abstract Rice (Oryza sativa L.) farmers generally overcome low seeding rates with additional nitrogen (N) fertilization to develop more productive tillers. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2020.105703. The performance of the Web app was evaluated for field-based practical applications. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2020.105703. Productive Tillers: 12 to 28 / plant. Through applying the Web app to 200 in-field images with 5 to 30 tillers per image, the number of productive tillers detected agreed well with manual counting data, regardless of rice variety or type of mobile phone used for image taking. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In this study, a method for automatically detecting and counting productive tillers of rice crop was proposed based on deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN). • SRI changes the structure of rice plants -- the density and number of their roots and tillers -- by changing the practices used to manage rice plants, the soil they grow in, and the water they receive through irrigation, so that the plants can become more productive For rice plants to be more productive, they need to have: • More tillers per plant, • More fertile tillers (panicles) which form from the tillers that a plant … Productive tillers per plant and harvest index (HI) expressed positive and significant correlation with grain yield. However, manual counting of productive tillers is time-consuming, laborious and error-prone. The CNN model was trained using large amounts of in-field images taken by mobile phones from various varieties of rice crops under various environmental conditions. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. A deep learning-based method was developed for rice productive tiller detection. 6.80% and a higher productive tillers percentage of 93.20%, followed treatment T3, next CK1, thenthe percentage of unproductive tillers of the check treatment CK2 was highest. However, the mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of HSFA2D remain unknown. 2003). Hybrid Rice Seeds. Each productive tiller bears a Rice tillers are specialized branches arising from axillary buds, usually at basal nodes of the primary stem (culm) and each bears a panicle. Furthermore, the performance of the Web app was not affected by the environmental conditions, such as illumination condition (cloudy or sunny) and water reflection in paddy fields. tillers plant-1, number of productive tillers plant-, panicle length, straw yield and harvest index. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. A tiller number is the key determinant of rice plant architecture and panicle number and consequently controls grain yield. Overall, compared to the manual counting, the accuracy of the Web app was over 99%. Deep learning-based automatic detection of productive tillers in rice. However, manual counting of productive tillers … However, only the early ones formed from the unelongated internodes outgrow as tillers, whereas later ones formed from the upper internodes remain dormant. The number of productive tillers per plant is one of the important agronomic traits associated with the grain yield of rice crop. number of grains per panicle (59.35%), number of productive tillers (55.38%), grain weight per hill (33.98%) and the characters that showed the highest heritability in the argon ion treatment were grain weight per hill (96.57%), panicle density (72.38%), number of productive tillers (67.43%) and number of grain per panicle (panicle) 65.32%). One seedling can produce a number of tillers (depends of stand density - see Figure 6 later in chapter) and ultimately panicles; however 60 to 70 pan- icles/ft2are about optimum for good yields with calrose type varieties (Table 2). They are involved in vegetative propagation and, in some cases, also seed production. The number of productive tillers per plant is one of the important agronomic traits associated with the grain yield of rice crop. The performance of the web app was unaffected by the environmental conditions. Results showed that the selected CNN model had a high precision and a fast detection rate. Branching comprises a protective mechanism for higher plants, by assisting with reducing the impacts of injury, and facilitating adaptation to the environment (Horvath et al. A deep learning-based method was developed for rice productive tiller detection. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. A tiller is a stem produced by grass plants, and refers to all shoots that grow after the initial parent shoot grows from a seed. The present The production of tertiary tillers begins at the end of secondary tiller production. Overall, compared to the manual counting, the accuracy of the Web app was over 99%. The coefficients of determination between the Web app detection and manual counting of tillers were over 0.97 in all cases. After … However, manual counting of productive tillers is time-consuming, laborious and error-prone. In India, area under rice is 44.6 m ha with total output of 80 million tonnes (paddy) with an average productivity of 1855 kg/ha. A Web app, integrating the trained CNN model and a Django server, was designed for fast and high-throughput detection of productive tillers. This step was to expose the transversal cross-sections of the tiller stems. Plant height varies by variety and environmental conditions, ranging from approximately 0.4 m to over 5 m in some floating rices. Firstly, the bunches of a rice plant were manually cut at 3 cm above the soil surface, and the bunches were moved away from the cutting area. The method was implemented in a high-throughput and low-cost web app. The CNN model was trained using large amounts of in-field images taken by mobile phones from various varieties of rice crops under various environmental conditions. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Each productive tiller bears a terminal flowering head or panicle. Rice is considered to be a semi-aquatic annual grass and is commonly grown in paddies in wetlands or under shallow water. Some of the later-formed tiller buds die or remain dormant. Results showed that the selected CNN model had a high precision and a fast detection rate. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The tillers which develop in an early growing stage of a plant usually grow vigorously, produce panicles at the tip of the stem and finally contribute to the yield as productive tillers. Ectopic expression of some of these GA2ox6 mutants moderately lowered GA levels and reprogrammed transcriptional networks, leading to reduced plant height, more productive tillers, expanded root system, higher WUE and photosynthesis rate, and elevated abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic rice. Tillers are segmented, each segment possessing its own two-part leaf. Ganito itsura ng 70 productive tillers na inbred RC300 variety na produce using Insta Organicfarm Enhanced Microbial Inoculant. In this study, a method for automatically detecting and counting productive tillers of rice crop was proposed based on deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN). Tiller angle largely determines plant architecture, which in turn substantially influences crop production by affecting planting density. The coefficients of determination between the Web app detection and manual counting of tillers were over 0.97 in all cases. The method was implemented in a high-throughput and low-cost web app. The performance of the web app was unaffected by the environmental conditions. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. A Web app, integrating the trained CNN model and a Django server, was designed for fast and high-throughput detection of productive tillers. Jun Yu. Germination in rice occurs when the first shoots and roots start to emerge from the seed and the rice plant begins to grow.To germinate, rice seeds need to absorb a certain amount of water and be exposed to a temperature range of 10–40 °C. Basic requirements Rice is mainly grown in warmer regions as the plants will not grow at temperatures below 10°C. Morphology and Development of the Rice Plant . 1. Deep learning-based automatic detection of productive tillers in rice. which is distinct from the lateral branching of dicotyledonous plants. The web app had an accuracy of over 99% compared with manual counting results. Abstract A rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop functions as a population of tillers produced at different times and possessing specific growth characteristics. The performance of the Web app was evaluated for field-based practical applications. Cultivated rice is generally considered a semiaquatic annual grass, although in the tropics it can survive as a perennial, producing new tillers from nodes after harvest (ratooning). Axillary buds produce tillers during the vegetative stage. Science of the Rice Plant). At maturity the rice plant has a main stem and a number of tillers. Vol. Hence an insight into the characters contributing to the grain yield of rice is very much essential. The number of productive tillers decreased in the rice varieties with two times immersion (N3, N4) compared to one time immersion (N1, N2) (Table 3). Congratulations Instalink Mindanao!!! The continual emergence of new tillers takes place from the main stem and these generate their own roots to grow independently, hence ensuring the survival of the gramineous plants u… Rice is a major source of food, particularly for the growing Asian population; hence, the utilization of genes for enhancing its yield potential is important for ensuring food security. © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. These tillers are called secondary tillers. Rice branching has attracted much attention because of its importance in food production. Furthermore, the performance of the Web app was not affected by the environmental conditions, such as illumination condition (cloudy or sunny) and water reflection in paddy fields. The number of panicles in a yield component depends largely on the number of tillers (p.222. Secondary tillers bear a third group of tillers; the tertiary tillers. A schematic of rice tillers … The objective of this study was to characterize the contribution of cultivar tillering ability to dry matter accumulation, yield components, and grain yield. Tertiary tiller production continues up to the maximum tillering stage . It implied both nitrogen dose and irrigation water exerted influence on the percentage of productive tillers and unproductive tillers,the The number of productive tillers per plant is one of the important agronomic traits associated with the grain yield of rice crop. At genotypic ... is a great challenge to meet the present demand of rice production to sustain the population of our country. Morphology . Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 1 a). We are committed to do several research and innovations to boost rice yields, sustain the growing population, create prosperity for the farmers, and secure rice sufficiency not only in the Philippines, but also in countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia and Myanmar among others. Enhanced OsNLP4‐OsNiR cascade confers nitrogen use efficiency by promoting tiller number in rice. A recent study revealed that HEAT STRESS TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR2D ( HSFA2D ) acts upstream of LAZY1 ( LA1 ) to regulate tiller angle establishment in rice ( Oryza sativa ).